U

= Overall heat transfer coefficient after fouling has occurred

U = Overall heat transfer coefficient of the clean exchanger Rf = Fouling factor

The fouling factor is a measure of the decrease in heat transfer versus a clean surface resulting from fouling. It is a design parameter — with typical values ranging from 0.001 to 0.01 hr • ft2 • °F/Btu (0.0002 to 0.002 hr • m2 • °K/Wh) — included in the specification of all heat exchangers. Important considerations are the chemical composition of the exhaust stream and the exit temperature.

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