Title II Mobile Source Regulations

Automotive emissions account for almost one half the emissions of VOCs and NOx and up to 90% of the CO emissions in urban areas. Title II includes a number of significant amendments to the EPA's existing authority to regulate motor vehicle emissions and motor vehicle fuels, as well as several new programs designed to supplant the new nonattainment and air toxic programs:

• The EPA set more stringent tail pipe standards for hydrocarbons, CO, NOX, and particulates to be phased in during the 1990s. The EPA is required to study whether even tighter Tier II standards are needed, technologically feasible, and economical. If the EPA determined by 1999 that lower standards are warranted, the standards will be cut in half beginning with 2004 model year vehicles.

• Stringent control of "evaporative emissions" were to be implemented by the mid-1990s. Devices that trap gasoline vapors from the engine and fuel system had to be improved. In addition, systems to capture gasoline vapors during refueling are required at service stations in Moderate or worse ozone nonattainment areas.

• The establishment of quality standards for fuel used for motor vehicle reformulated gasoline.

• The CAAA also calls for several programs to promote the introduction of clean fuels other than gasoline and Diesel. Several of these programs may apply to businesses as opposed simply to car owners:

— Fleets (10 or more vehicles in 22 urban areas in those Serious or worse areas for ozone) must purchase vehicles meeting tight emissions limits that may only be met by alternative fuels, although alternatives are not required. The phase-in began with 30% of the new fleet purchases of passenger automobiles and light vans by 1998 and increased to 50% in 1999 and 70% in 2000. For heavy-duty vehicles, the phase-in requirement is a constant 50% of new purchases starting in 1998. A fleet emission-trading program must also be put into effect within each nonattainment area.

— A clean-fuel vehicle pilot program had to be established in California (the state with the greatest smog problem), requiring annual production and sale of 150,000 clean-fuel vehicles beginning in 1996 and increasing to 300,000 vehicles per year in 1999 and thereafter. This program differs from the overall program because credits are available to the manufacturers for producing more clean vehicles rather than to the fleet owners.

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