In preparation for start-up, a review of the manufacturer's recommendations for start-up is completed along with a review of the design parameters of the equipment in the specific installation. This preparation for startup is sometimes referred to as pre-functional testing. This review is conducted for the purpose of determining any operational parameters that could affect performance and/or safety of operation. This may include items such as initial fluid level and lubrication requirements, valve positions, wiring connections, minimum or maximum flow rates or pressure differentials, cleanliness of filters, and rotational direction. A list of each of these items is developed along with the parametric measurement values required during operation. It must be understood that mistakes made once the equipment is started up can be very costly and delay eventual project completion significantly. Operation without lubrication or coolant or mismatched power connections can have devastating effects. Even something as seemingly insignificant as one day of poor water treatment can have severe consequences. Hence, the need for extensive preparation and check-out, along with proper safety procedures, cannot be overstated.

Once the system is initially started, a check of each of these items is made to determine if the unit is acting as proposed in the design. Assuming the unit is within design parameters, the commissioning goes on to the next phase. If the unit is not within design parameters, additional external parameters may need to be measured prior to contacting the designer, thereby giving the designer a full review of all external items that could be affecting the unit's performance. The designer must then advise on the best course to proceed. Once corrective action is taken, the process is repeated until it is determined that all design parameters have been met. At this point, system testing can begin. Testing

During execution of testing procedures, all of the operational parameters, such as head loss/pressure drop, motor amperage, temperature rise or fall, rotational speed, fuel or power usage, and any other parameters related to the operation and/or performance of the installed systems, are measured. For a controls system, this would include a complete point-by-point checkout. Depending on the proposed operation and complexity of the system, this may involve performance testing at numerous loading points over a period of time sufficient to confirm conformance to specifications. If the system is designed for constant-duty service, a one-time measurement may be acceptable. The results of these tests are then reviewed with the Design Engineer and, where applicable, the Savings Analyst to confirm consistency with original design and analysis assumptions.

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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