Introduction

While intended as a road map for overall energy resource optimization, the principal theme of this book is to evaluate heat and power requirements interactively with an integrated approach to energy and cost-efficiency project development, seeking a match between power production and heating/cooling requirements. Therefore, there is a strong interrelationship between most of the chapters. The parts and sections are built upon each other in a sequential flow that weaves building blocks of information along the way into one overall fabric.

The book has been organized into four parts. Part 1 provides the basic building blocks, Part 2 sets the stage, Part 3 provides potential solutions, and Part 4 guides the reader through steps and best practices to choose and implement such solutions. While each chapter is a thread in this fabric, they have also been developed to stand on their own. The author hopes that much of the specific subject content will prove useful independently from the rest of the book. Hence, a balance was sought between the redundancy of fully developed, independent chapters with all necessary background provided in one place versus weaving cross-references throughout chapters in an integrated tapestry.

Pait 1, Theory And Technology, provides a theoretical basis for understanding the interrelations of heat and power resources. It provides an introduction to basic heat and power thermodynamics and includes sections on heat and power generation technologies and equipment.

Section I, Optimizing Heat and Power Resources, presents thermodynamic theory on heat and power resources. It includes an introduction to various power cycles — simple, cogeneration, and combined cycles — and basic power cycle performance expressions. There is also a comparative discussion on localized and central station power generation and a brief overview on selection of power-generating systems.

Section II, Thermal Technologies, presents processes and equipment used to generate useful thermal energy streams, such as steam and hot water. It starts with background theory on fuel characteristics, the combustion process, and the properties and values of steam, and proceeds with chapters on the main thermal technologies. This includes components and systems used in the main boiler technologies — conventional fuel-fired firetube and watertube designs. Details are provided on systems designed for operation on renewable and waste recovery energy sources, and heat recovery heat exchangers used with reciprocating engines and gas turbines to generate hot water and steam.

Section III, Prime Mover Technologies, includes a series of chapters on the main classes of prime movers used to generate shaft power — reciprocating engines, combustion gas turbines, and steam turbines — and on combined and steam injection cycles that use recovered heat to augment power generating capacity and performance. The chapters focus on how shaft power is generated and made available as a driver for various applications, rather than on a particular application, such as electric power generation or mechanical drive service. Additional chapters are included on control technologies for prime mover operation and alternative power generation technologies — hydropower, wind power, solar photovoltaic, and hydrogen-powered fuel cell technologies.

Part 2, Operating Environment, describes the infrastructure in which the theories and technologies described in Part 1 must be applied. Having learned of the theory and available technologies, applications cannot be effectively devised, analyzed for cost-effectiveness, and implemented without knowledge of environmental factors and utility rate structures.

Section IV, Environmental Considerations, covers the regulatory status of air pollution programs and prescribes ways to permit projects and control emissions, with chapters on the national framework of air pollution regulatory programs, permitting process, permitting strategies, and techniques for controlling air emissions. Information is also provided on environmental regulations for refrigerants, with emphasis on CFC phaseout.

Section V, Utility Industry and Energy Rates, presents extensive overviews of the gas and electric utility industry. It describes the role of the pipelines, merchants, and utilities in the evolving deregulated environment of the natural gas industry and parallel aspects of the electric utility industry, with treatment of utility integrated resource planning and interaction with non-utility generators. Detail is also included on utility rate structures — reasoning behind their construction and how they work, and on utility bill analysis — to determine discrete and weighted average costs for operation on specific load profiles.

Part 3, Applications, presents detail on a series of different types of applications and discusses how opportunities can be identified and successfully exploited. It builds on the understanding of the infrastructure and the technologies developed in the first two parts of the book. Whereas in Part 1, the thermal and prime power technologies were described generically, in this part they are combined with secondary technologies such as electric generators and mechanical drive equipment in specific site applications. Additional theories and technologies are introduced as they relate specifically to these applications.

Section VI, Localized Electric Generation, focuses on non-utility electric generation applications for commercial, industrial, and institutional facilities, as well as district systems and independent power production. This largely consists of applying traditional prime movers to electric generators to produce electricity in simple-, cogeneration-, combined- and steam injection-cycle applications, but also includes renewable and alternative power production technologies. Chapter topics include a basic introduction to electricity and electric generators and an extensive review of generator driver applications. It covers application and equipment selection processes and provides an example of a detailed electric cogeneration system feasibility study. Also included are chapters on generator switchgear, controls, and grid interconnection.

Section VII, Mechanical Drive Services, focuses on applying electric motor and prime mover drivers to mechanical equipment. An overview of mechanical drive applications is provided with detail on electric motors and prime movers as mechanical equipment drivers, with performance information and guidance for application-specific driver selection. Additional chapter topics include air (and gas) compressors, pumps, and fans, providing technology descriptions and detail on performance and application compatibility for different driver and equipment combinations.

Section VIII, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning, focuses on various space and process cooling applications. Theory in refrigeration cycles and psychrometrics is provided to support a more complete understanding of application requirements and options. Technical detail is provided on heat extraction — evaporators, chilled water systems, economizers, and thermal storage — and on heat rejection — condensers, cooling towers, heat pumps, and heat recovery. Additional chapter topics include vapor compression-cycle, absorption-cycle, and desiccant dehumidification system technologies and applications.

Part 4, Analysis And Implementation, has only one section. Section IX, Integrated Approach to Energy Resource Optimization Projects, puts the information presented in the first three parts to practical use. Knowing the application options available and the theory and technology behind them, as well as the energy and environmental infrastructure in which they are to be applied, the next steps involve project development, implementation, and operation. The first chapter provides an overview of the development and implementation of multi-technology application projects using an integrated approach that considers a facility as a dynamic entity with interrelated systems. The next chapter provides detail on technical analysis for identifying project opportunities and analyzing their technical merit, with a step-by-step multi-phased development approach. Ensuing chapters include detail on financial analysis techniques to evaluate project financial performance potential and contract vehicles and funding sources to secure and support project implementation. The final chapter covers project implementation and operation, with approaches to project design engineering, construction, and long-term operations, maintenance, and repair.

This book should not be considered an engineering reference manual, as much as a preliminary source of information and, hopefully, inspiration to pursue development of integrated energy and environmentally efficient projects that will provide solid financial returns. The author has chosen a presentation style and a "show and tell" format to add real-world perspective. For most topics, the text is heavily supplemented with graphic support from credible sources. The book includes in excess of one thousand graphics, including photographs, cutaway drawings, layout schematics, performance curves, and data tables. When reading about a technology or application, one can find numerous photographs of equipment from a wide range of manufacturers. To facilitate a more in-depth understanding, components are featured both independently and with labeled cutaway and schematic drawings of entire systems. Building upon this, a wide range of performance information is provided, based on manufacturer's data and on contributions from various independent engineering sources.

Numerous examples are provided of actual field applications, with supporting documentation of system layouts and performance. Many comparative analyses are also provided showing both simplified and more complex examples of how equipment and systems are selected for various applications. A recurring warning to the reader is not to take the conclusions of these examples as definitive and not to convert them into firmly preconceived notions. Applications must be evaluated against actual site conditions and with consideration of local infrastructure, energy rates, and environmental regulations. Hence, the purpose of these examples is to show different ways to analyze opportunities; it is the approach that is paramount, not the conclusions. Equipped with this information, the reader must then evaluate actual situations and prevailing conditions and solicit more detailed design information to make the necessary adjustments for each potential application under consideration.

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