Design Document Control

Since several different teams and companies may be involved in the process, effective document control is a critical area. Document control should begin at the study phase with careful planning of what documents, both written and electronic, will be required throughout the project. The flow of these documents and responsibility for their generation and handling should, therefore, be established at the start of the project. Consistency is maintained throughout, with documentation from the study phase flowing into the design phase and construction phase through to commissioning and the ongoing OM&R phase.

Given the wide range of personnel that will require access to the electronic documents, various levels of access should be established. Design documents can be con trolled by title (or file name) and revision level. Letter or number suffixes can be added to permanent file names to identify revisions. The Design Team Leader should maintain control over revision levels for drawings and specifications. Read-only access should be allowed, with write access granted only by document control and accompanied by a new revision level suffix. Field changes can be accumulated in a revision format and incorporated into the newest revision only when approved by the appropriate Design Team members. Once construction is completed, final record drawings will be established reflecting construction modifications. It is also advisable to keep an electronic record of each formal submission, including the proposal period drawings or initial 30% submission and each subsequent submission up to the 100% construction drawings and finally the as-built drawings. The drawings used for final contractor pricing (the pricing set) are particularly important in the event any disputes arise as to what firm price offerings were based upon. Field changes are sometimes paper copies, formally transferred into the finals after construction.

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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