816 561

*VM = volatile matter, moisture and ash free basis MSW = municipal waste RDF = refuse-derived fuel

Table 5-11 Theoretical Air Required for Various Fuels. Source: Babcock & Wilcox about 1 vol%, but may rise to about 4% under extreme conditions. Thus, the rule of thumb is that each cf of gaseous fuel (1,000 Btu/cf HHV) will require about 10 cf combustion air. For oil and coal, the theoretical air value is 9.7cf per 1,000 Btu HHV; however, much more excess air is required to avoid smoke and unburned hydrocarbons.

While the general combustion equation expressed in molar units is exact, conversion from moles to volume units is approximate unless compressibilities of the fuel gas and the air are taken into account. They are different for each composition and are not linear with pressure. Thus, in internal combustion work — especially in which the air-fuel ratio has to be controlled precisely to minimize

Natural Gas, % bv vol

Natural Gas, % bv vol

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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