Operation and Maintenance

Absorption chillers are characterized by their simple design with few moving parts and relatively low operating temperatures and pressures. Following is a description of some of the basic recommended O& M practices. Regular O& M of the purge unit at manufacturer recommended intervals is required to maintain design pressure within the system. The purge pump oil level must be checked and changed as necessary, the pump motor bearings must be oiled, and the belt tension must be adjusted as...

Site Plans and Major System Drawings

Available copies of site plans of the entire facility should be obtained and studied for the purpose of identifying the location of each area to be addressed in the study. Distribution system and central plant schematic diagrams and equipment schedules should also be obtained to provide a general understanding of those systems. Particularly valuable before embarking upon a site visit are equipment schedules for energy intensive equipment. Reduced scale floor plans are often a useful aid in...

3way Catalyst

Figure 17-42 shows a catalytic converter unit used for stationary reciprocating engine applications. The steel catalyst housing frame can be used with either three-way or oxidation catalyst systems. The catalyst element shown on top of the housing can be quickly removed and replaced. Figure 17-43 is a schematic diagram indicating the converter and sensor location in the exhaust gas flue. Figure 17-44 shows representative uncontrolled emissions for a standard 4-stroke-cycle rich-burn engine. At...

Refrigeration Cycle Heat Recovery

Any type of refrigeration cycle system that transfers heat for beneficial purposes may be considered a heat pump. Refrigeration cycle systems that provide cooling but also recover heat rejected from the refrigerant to provide useful heating may be considered a type of heat recovery heat pump. These are differentiated from reverse cycle systems in that when they operate, they always provide cooling with conventional cycle operation. An additional feature is that they recover refrigeration...

Heat Recovery Systems

Small heat recovery systems, including required heat exchangers, controls, piping and ductwork, pumps, silencers, diverters, expansion tanks, safety devices, etc., can be supplied as a single package. In some cases, heat recovery is provided as an integral part of a packaged prime mover system. This is particularly common in small reciprocating engine systems. In other cases, the heat recovery system is a separately packaged unit that is interconnected with the prime mover-driven system. Larger...

Examples Based on 600 Psig 750F Superheated Steam

Examples 4 through 6, which are illustrated in Figures 11 -50 through 11 -53, are based on the following conditions Exhaust condition (hd) (condensing example) Exhaust condition (hd) (back-pressure examples) Turbine efficiency (nj) Turbine efficiency (nj) Boiler efficiency (nB) Steam (mass) flow (ni) Condensate (ha) Condensate (ha) Makeup water Boiler feedwater (hb) 600 psig, 750 F (1,380 Btu lbm) 3 in. HgA (918 Btu lbm ideal) 70 (condensing example) 50 (back-pressure examples) 85 83 Btu lbm...

Types of Heat Source and Heat Sink Media

Numerous heat sources and distribution fluids can be used with heat pumps and there are many variations on the basic system design. Following are brief descriptions of commonly used heat source and heat sink media. Outdoor air represents a virtually unlimited heat source and heat sink medium for heat pumps and is widely used in small-capacity systems. Other sources of air for heat pumps include air from internal spaces and air from process or HVAC exhaust systems. Since air is a relatively...

Determining After Tax Earnings

While some simplified project analyses may deal with gross operating profit or pre-tax revenues, the ultimate value of an investment is based on its anticipated net, or after-tax, financial impact on a cash, and sometimes, book basis. The following definitions are useful when considering net financial impact Gross operating profit is the difference between total revenue and the sum of all operating costs. This is referred to in accounting terms as earnings before interest, taxes, and...

Gas Turbine Performance

Showing Symmetry Engineering Prints

Gas turbine thermal efficiencies (shaft power) range from 15 to more than 40 (LHV). A simplified heat balance diagram, showing average annual performance for a 4.7 MW gas turbine cogeneration system, is shown in Figure 10-43. As demonstrated above in the discussion of the Brayton Fig. 10-43 Simplified Heat Balance Diagram Showing Average Annual Performance for 4.7 MW Gas Turbine Cogeneration System. Source Cogen Designs, Inc. Fig. 10-43 Simplified Heat Balance Diagram Showing Average Annual...

Cogeneration Cycle Comparison

Figure 3-12 is a comparison of FCP heat rate for three advanced cogeneration cycle alternatives 1. A simple-cycle system featuring a gas turbine and HRSG with bypass stack and supplementary firing. 2. A combined-cycle system featuring a gas turbine, HRSG, back-pressure steam turbine cycle with bypass stack, and supplementary firing. 3. A combined-cycle system featuring a gas turbine, HRSG, condensing-extraction steam turbine cycle with supplementary firing, but no bypass stack. The comparisons...

Fluidized Bed Combustion

(FBC) is a technology that has widespread appeal because of its low emission characteristics, particularly for systems that use sulfur-bearing fuels, such as coal, and its potential for improved heat transfer. Fluidized-bed configurations include bubbling-bed and circulating fluidized bed designs, with atmospheric- or elevated-pressure operation. Fig. 7-23 Basic Commercial Industrial Packaged Watertube Boiler. Source Cleaver Brooks Fig. 7-24 Cutaway View of Integral Furnace Boiler-Membrane Wall...

Rejected Heat Storage or Rejection

The demands for prime power and thermal energy are not always perfectly matched. When configuring a system, it is usually most economical to satisfy non-varying baseloads. In theory, this means that available power and recovered thermal energy can be used all of the time. This perfect relationship, however, is not always attainable. If available heat cannot be used when it is recovered, it must either be stored for later use or rejected to the environment. The most common types of storage...

Detailed Feasibility Study Phase

The feedback and direction provided by host facility management after review of the initial study work will help guide the study team in refining the overall project scope and limiting the focus to those measures that the facility wishes to include in the final investment-grade study or proposal. The Detailed Feasibility Study is initiated following acceptance of the Preliminary Feasibility Study and authorization to proceed with this final development phase effort. In the case of a standard...

Withholding of Funds

With most contracting methods, the owner holds the largest clout, that being the funds for payment. With varying degrees of success, withholding payment for incomplete work may be the owner's most effective means of getting a contractor's attention. However, the effectiveness of this can largely depend on the amount of money still outstanding to be paid to the contractor, assuming that progress payments have been made during the course of the project. As a project nears completion, the amount...

Determining the Weighted Average Cost of Power

In the following pages, three electric rate examples are discussed. To keep the analysis manageable, certain billing factors, such as customer charges, taxes, and power factor, have been excluded. These examples, which represent typical industrial, institutional, and large commercial electric rate structures and clearly demonstrate the relationship between varying consumption load profiles and electricity costs, are based on the following three rate structure types Rate 1 A seasonal time-of-use...

Operating Permits The Federal Program

The CAAA requires each major source of air pollutants to obtain a federal operating permit. The renewable permit incorporates all applicable conditions under one federally enforceable permit. Since the federal operating permit program does not create new emissions limits or requirements, it is considered a mechanism by which the EPA can enforce the requirements of the Act and provide the facility management and the public with a single document covering all air regulations and conditions...

1 1

Source General Electric Company Fig. 17-31 DLN Combustor. Source General Electric Company Fig. 17-32 Fuel-Staged DLN Combustor Operating Modes. Source General Electric Company Fig. 17-31 DLN Combustor. Source General Electric Company flow from the burners, to eliminate flame temperature peaks. The process is aided by the lower O2 content in the second combustion chamber, which inhibits NOx formation. Typically, at start-up and idle, fuel is injected only into the...

Step 7 Application Opportunity Screening Process

From the master list of identified potential application opportunities (which can be based on the checklist of potential measures presented in Figure 41-1), different types of screening methodologies can be employed to qualify measures as eligible for inclusion in the detailed study. As part of the site visits, project implementation costs should also be estimated by qualified members of the study team. Once preliminary costs are established, the screening tool models developed in the...

Step 6 Refinements to Selected Project Measures

Commonly, more than one type of system or system configuration and control strategy are considered in an effort to develop the most effective option for a given application. Each option must be modeled and then compared with the baseline. Once these savings are compared with the budget cost estimates for each option, the most appropriate option will be selected and proposed. Finally, as discussed above, measure impact must be determined on a system-specific basis, as well as on an interactive...

Utility Information

The study team should secure monthly bills, including electricity, fuel, waste disposal, water, and sewer, for the most recent two year period. In addition to offering an aggregate picture of use and seasonal variation, a review of the bills may uncover inconsistencies, such as multiple billings or seemingly inappropriate rates. Further examination and clarification may reveal important limitations, such as an inability to combine electrical services or delivery capacity constraints....

Introduction

While intended as a road map for overall energy resource optimization, the principal theme of this book is to evaluate heat and power requirements interactively with an integrated approach to energy and cost-efficiency project development, seeking a match between power production and heating cooling requirements. Therefore, there is a strong interrelationship between most of the chapters. The parts and sections are built upon each other in a sequential flow that weaves building blocks of...

Heat Recovery Application Overview

Recovered heat can be used for many purposes. Applications include air or water heating, steam production for thermal loads or for additional power production, absorption chilling, and regeneration of desiccant dehu-midification systems. The most common heat recovery applications are described below Exhaust gas can be used directly for process air heating, serving industrial ovens and dryers, or for the preheating of combustion air. Fluid heating can be accomplished with several types of heat...

Types of Maintenance Strategies

The importance of proper maintenance for all types of systems cannot be overstated. No matter what type of equipment is selected, inadequate maintenance can lead to unreliable operation production that can, in turn, result in excessive downtime and lost savings and productivity that cannot be made up. A comprehensive maintenance program employing the practice of repair before failure generally represents a form of inexpensive insurance. There are three basic approaches to ongoing maintenance...

1

Table 26-20 Annual Cost Data for Case RE-1. Table 26-20 Annual Cost Data for Case RE-1. tion or load reduction can also affect central plant requirements, integrated studies that interactively consider all opportunities at a facility are a preferred analytical approach. Following are two sensitivity analyses that demonstrate different results. The first shows how results would be different for a facility with somewhat varying conditions. The second shows how the expected implementation of...

Non Conventional Utility or State Sponsored Financing Vehicles

Generally, these types of financing arrangements are designed to support various utility or state objectives. Often, these instruments are similar to conventional financing vehicles and may be provided at below prevailing market rates and be available for host facilities with higher risk credit profiles. State-sponsored financing vehicles are often provided as part of state economic development efforts, usually through an agency designated as the Economic Development Authority. Loans are...

Speed Control

All methods that reduce refrigerant flow reduce the amount of compressor work done under low loads. However, compressor volumetric efficiency will decrease as output goes down. Reducing the speed (rpm) of the driver and compressor allows the compressor to operate at part load more efficiently with a lower degree of reliance on compressor unloading techniques. Most applications that use speed control have prime movers as drivers, although variable frequency drive (VFD) electric motors are also...

Main Analytical Components

The three main analytical components of a comprehensive Detailed Feasibility Study are acquisition and analysis of metered and field-collected data, computer modeling, and utility bill reconciliation. Extensive direct system metering and recording activities have a firm scientific basis, but also involve hands-on activities. It involves the practical determination of what to meter, where to meter it, how to meter it, and for how long. It involves activities such as selecting and installing...

Central Plant

The old central plant provided steam, chilled water, compressed air, and domestic hot water to the entire facility. The main heating plant, consisting of three 24,000 lbm h (10,900 kg h) boilers, provided steam to the HVAC heating and humidifying equipment, domestic water heaters, and office radiation convectors at 35 psig (3.4 bar). Chilled water was generated to serve HVAC equipment in the facility by three 1,000 ton (3,516 kWr) electric chillers, estimated to operate at 0.775 kW ton (0.227...

Desiccant System Performance

Desiccant system performance depends on several factors. These include The sorption desorption characteristics of the particular desiccant used. The amount of desiccant exposed to the reactivation and process airstreams by the system. The process and reactivation air velocity through the desiccant. The process air moisture and temperature levels. The reactivation air moisture and temperature levels. Each type of system will offer varied performance depending largely on the operating conditions....

Informational Requirements

While different types of information and different levels of accuracy will be required during different phases of the study process, the same basic types of information will be required to complete most integrated studies. Following is a representative listing of some of the basic information that is typically required. Incremental economic values must be determined for items such as Steam or other heat sources at each thermal level (temperature) required Personnel requirements, including...

Info

Fig. 22-1 Sample Natural Gas Rate Tariff. levels of usage are billed at different unit costs. In this case, the billing unit is 100 cubic feet (Ccf) of natural gas. Ccf is a commonly used volume of gas for billing purposes. Other commonly used billing units are 1,000 cf (Mcf), therm (100,000 Btu), and million Btu (MMBtu). The rate schedule is shown in Figure 22-1. Refer to Chapter 5 for detail on the energy or heat content of natural gas billing units. Assuming that the gas usage for the month...

Permit Conditions

Once a state and applicant have reached agreement on permit conditions, the state will issue a permit and the applicant is required to conform to all of the permit's provisions. Conditions are placed in permits in order to limit, or require some type of action by the source facility. These limits or actions may include Compliance with specific regulations Keeping emissions at prescribed levels Limiting processing rates, throughput, and hours to match the representations in the permit...

Power Cycle Thermal Efficiency

Efficiency is a general concept used to describe the effectiveness of energy conversion from one state or form to another. Thermodynamic efficiency and coefficient of performance (COP) are terms used for expressing efficiency for devices that operate in cycles or for individual system components that operate in processes. The term COP is usually reserved for refrigeration systems. The thermal efficiency of a cycle is the ratio of output energy to input energy. In a heat engine, the desired form...

011111

0 Bhp 269 Bhp 539 Bhp 808 Bhp 1077 Bhp Exhaust + Jacket Water Heat (Btu hr) Fig. 29-26 Recoverable Heat from Reciprocating Engine Operating under Variable Speed. Figures 29-25 and 29-26 are representative examples of reciprocating engine performance under variable speed operation. Figure 29-25 compares simple-cycle heat rates, in Btu bhp (HHV basis), over operating loads ranging down to 25 of full load for both constant (C) speed and optimal (O) variable speed operation. Figure 29-26 shows...

Central Plant Machinery And Equipment Loads

Fig. 27-13 Line Diagram of Integrated Generator Switchgear in Peaking or Baseload Application with Provisions for Emergency Power Service. Source Automatic Switch Company generator switchgear bus. These feeders could provide emergency power to other buildings for emergency purposes. When the utility service is disrupted, the generators would start automatically and feed power to these emergency loads. Emergency power can also be fed to the switchgear bus of the central plant by opening both...

Cooling Systems

High-performance gas turbine models feature turbine inlet gas operating temperatures that exceed allowable operating metal temperatures. Hence, carefully controlled cooling Fig. 10-24 Power Turbine Module in Foreground Gas Generator in Background. Source ABB STAL Fig. 10-24 Power Turbine Module in Foreground Gas Generator in Background. Source ABB STAL Fig. 10-25 High-Pressure Compressor-Drive Turbine Featuring Two Axial-Flow Stages. Source MAN GHH Fig. 10-26 Turbine Section Design for...

45 F

Localized vs Central Station Power Generation or a given application, an on-site prime mover 9 possesses several potential cost advantages over an electrically driven end-use device. These advantages are due largely to a higher utilization of input energy when compared with a central electric generation plant. Potential advantages include recovery of high-grade heat (as opposed to rejection of low-grade heat by central electric generation plants) and reduction of electrical transmission and...

Energy

There are two general types of energy kinetic and potential. Kinetic energy (KE) is the energy of a given mass of material due to its motion relative to another body. Potential energy (PE) is the energy of a given mass of material as a result of the material's position in a force field. Generally, potential forms can be easily converted into kinetic forms and vice versa. Energy can be transformed from one form to another. For example, a rock resting on the top of a hill has the potential to...

120

Fig. 25-5 Illustration of Exciter Operation. Modern generators use solid-state rectifiers and no longer require slip rings and brushes for external excitation. There are two basic types of brushless generators. In the recent past, most generators of the brushless design depended upon residual magnetism in the main field to produce a small voltage upon initial starting. Today, many generators are permanent magnet generators (PMG) containing a separate alternator for the voltage regulator power...

Refrigeration Cycle TES Technology Overview

For refrigeration and air conditioning applications, all TES systems operate on the same fundamental concept the cooling equipment produces a refrigeration effect Fig. 35-10 Schematic Representation of Indirect Water-Side Free-Cooling System. Fig. 35-10 Schematic Representation of Indirect Water-Side Free-Cooling System. (direct or indirect), either to meet the load or to be added to storage. The storage system either accepts excess cooling capacity or supplies it to meet the load. The load may...

Pump Driver Options

As with most mechanical drive applications, ac electric induction motors predominate, particularly in smaller capacities. Speed control can be accomplished with a dc motor, a multiple-speed ac motor, or by equipping an ac motor with a variable frequency drive (VFD). VFDs can control speed precisely over a wide range of operation, Fig. 31-28 3,500 rpm Pump Performance Curves. Source Bell & Gossett Fig. 31-28 3,500 rpm Pump Performance Curves. Source Bell & Gossett Fig. 31-29 1,700 rpm Pump...

816 561

*VM volatile matter, moisture and ash free basis MSW municipal waste RDF refuse-derived fuel Table 5-11 Theoretical Air Required for Various Fuels. Source Babcock & Wilcox about 1 vol , but may rise to about 4 under extreme conditions. Thus, the rule of thumb is that each cf of gaseous fuel (1,000 Btu cf HHV) will require about 10 cf combustion air. For oil and coal, the theoretical air value is 9.7cf per 1,000 Btu HHV however, much more excess air is required to avoid smoke and unburned...

3413 3413

A peaking plant (i.e., simple-cycle gas turbine) may have a heat rate in excess of 14,000 Btu kWh (4.10 kWhh kWhe) and experience T& D losses of 12 (line losses are generally at their highest in peak conditions), resulting in a total heat rate for a delivered kW of 15,680 Btu kWh (4.59 kWhh kWhe). The source COP for the same 20 EER unit would be calculated as In SI units, EER would be replaced with watt-h of refrigerant output divided by watt-h of electricity input, and power plant...

Step 11 Equipment Selection

Having analyzed the savings potential for various measures, and having made preliminary equipment and component selections, the next step is to develop conceptual designs and select specific equipment. This allows for preparation of budget estimates for development, installation, and commissioning of each measure under consideration. From this, final measure cost-effectiveness can be evaluated. All equipment selected and or specified and installed should satisfy the necessary requirements of...

Prime Mover Heat Balance

Heat recovery from each of the main types of prime movers (i.e., reciprocating engines, gas turbines, and steam turbines) presents a different set of conditions. A heat balance is an accounting of the energy flows involved in the process, including input fuel energy, power output, and rejected heat. The amount of rejected heat that can be used will depend on the form and condition in which it is rejected and the form and condition in which it can be recovered and applied for a given...

A

Fig. 28-13 Open-Circuited Phase Faults. circuits and to re-energize the line by reclosing to restore service. Because most faults are temporary (lasting only a few cycles or seconds), reclosers momentarily trip open and closed, after which most faults will be cleared. Reclosers are set for one or several reclosing operations. Typically, with multiple reclosing settings, the initial response is instantaneous, lasting a couple of cycles. If the fault is not...

Site Safety Health and Loss Prevention Programs

Fundamental elements in the construction process include a unilateral commitment that all work to be performed will be planned to minimize the potential for personal injury, property damage, and loss of productive time, and a system of prompt detection and correction of unsafe practices and conditions will be implemented. As a means of maintaining a safe working environment at the construction site and adhering to all required safety codes, a complete site safety, health, and loss prevention...

Factors Affecting Single and Multi Stage Turbine Performance

Factors that differentiate performance between single-and multi-stage turbines include the effects of reheating between stages, steam quality, and nozzle changes at partial load or overload. A reheating effect occurs between stages in a multistage turbine. With each stage, the steam energy in the enthalpy drop that is not converted to power remains in the steam so it can be used by subsequent stages. The portion of the available energy remaining in the fluid is termed the reheat. The reheat in...

Financial Information

Detailed financial information will be needed as input to the financial models. They will provide more parameters to predict life cycle costs and cash flows than are needed for simple payback evaluations. Financial data review involves the following Incremental economic values must be determined. Long-term life-cycle factors must also be integrated Incremental capital investment costs must be integrated. Figure 41-3 illustrates the depth of information gathered and processed during a Detailed...

Cop

For heat-driven refrigeration cycles, or, more generally, for Carnot refrigeration cycles, COP can be expressed as Refrigeration effect C0P p _ Energy input Heat input to the cycle (this is the heat removed from the conditioned space or process load, i.e., refrigeration effect) Heat rejected by the cycle to the surrounding atmosphere area (3-b-a-4-3) Refrigeration effect

Value of Steam as a Heat Transfer Medium

Steam usage is generally expressed, in English units, in lbm or thousand lbm (Mlbm) and, in SI units, in kg. Rudimentary steam balances are quantified in these terms and steam is typically sold in these quantities. However, as can be seen by steam tables and thermodynamic analysis, steam only has value based on what can be done with it. A lbm (or kg) of steam at 0 gauge pressure may have a negative value. Even though it still has heat value, it often cannot be used productively and, therefore,...

Compressed Air Gas Drying

Desiccants are commonly used for drying compressed air. Moisture in a compressed air system can cause serious corrosion and wear of many types of equipment and can cause instruments and controls to malfunction. Drying of instrument air to a dewpoint of -40 F (-40 C) prevents condensation or freeze-up in the instrument control lines. Dry air prevents rusting of the air lines, which produces abrasive impurities and causes excessive wear on tools. Desiccant drying effectively solves these...

Summary Examples

Following are four examples of how the terms and formulae provided above are applied to specific representative prime mover systems. All values are given in English units and the assumed fuel is pipeline grade natural gas with an HHV of 1,020 Btu cf and LHV of 918 Btu cf. Fuel costs are given for each example on the basis of 1,000 cf (1 Mcf). For simplicity, the performance + A Operating costs + Annualized capital cost expressions are applied under idealized This expression can be extended...

Step 8 Evaluating OMR Requirements

With the installation of any energy system, there will be a change in OM& R requirements at the facility. This change may be minor or major. If new motors, pumps, or lighting fixtures are installed, there will usually be a relatively minor, predictable impact. Generally, these produce a slight decrease in OM& R requirements when an older, more maintenance-intensive inventory of equipment is replaced with newer, less maintenance-intensive equipment. The group replacement nature of this...

Non Conventional Performance Based Financing Vehicles

Guaranteed or shared savings performance-based financing provides low risk and responsibility to the host facility and higher risk and responsibility to the contractor investor. Consequently, they provide lower net financial benefits to the host facility and greater financial reward to the contractor investor. Performance-based contracting is a specialty field, which generally consists of large ESCos that have the full range of technical and financial resources to analyze, develop, design,...

Step 8 Summary of Findings

Upon completion of the preliminary screening process, a summary table should be developed for each application opportunity. Generally, the table will include estimated capital costs and rebates, which will yield net capital costs, and estimated costs and savings for energy, OM& R, and other resource, which will yield net savings. From the net capital costs and savings figures, simple pay backs can be computed for each project opportunity. Given the fast changing energy market, it is often...

Speed Matching Gears

Applied designs include a variety of gear configurations. The two most common configurations are parallel-offset and epicyclic designs. Parallel-offset gears require larger skids for equipment mounting, but otherwise provide reliable, economic service and easy maintenance. Epicyclic gears permit gas turbine shafting to operate on a common centerline with its driven load and have lower gear mechanical losses and less oil flow requirement than a parallel shaft design. Epicyclic gears are often...

Heat Recovery System Performance

As with heat pumps, the energy available to a heat recovery system consists of the refrigeration (or cooling) effect, plus the driving energy input. In English units, when driver energy for a vapor compression system is measured in hp, the heat available from a system can be expressed as ha 12,000 Btu tan-hcoolmgeffect + hp ton x 2,545 Btu hp-hcompraswn x tons capacity When driver energy is measured in kW, the equation becomes ha l2,000 Btu ton-hcoolingeffect + (kW ton x 3,413 Btu...

General Verification Process Approaches

The type of verification process used will vary widely. Savings verification programs are designed with specific metering and verification (M& V) protocols. Protocol selection will depend on several factors, including project complexity, metering complexity, magnitude of costs and savings, level of interactivity with other measures, contractual allocation of risk associated with performance factors not controlled by the contractor, and collateral value of the M& V installation with...

Tidal Power

In addition to traditional hydropower plants located in rivers and streams, it is also possible to use tidal power for hydroelectric generation. In areas where the normal tide runs high, water can be allowed to flow into a dam-controlled basin during high tide and discharged during low tide to produce intermittent power. One such plant is located in France on the estuary of the Rance River in Brittany. There, a reservoir has been created by a barrage 2.4 miles (4 km) inland from the river mouth...

Heating Value of Air Fuel Mixtures

Once the heating value of the specific fuel being burned and the amount of air required for complete combustion of the flammables is determined, the heating value of the air-fuel mixture, or air-fuel charge as it is sometimes called, can be determined as follows Heating value of fuel (1 cf fuel + cf air required) (12.011a + 1.00794b + 15.9994c + l4.0067d) For the natural gas described as C1045H4034O0010N0036, the (A F)S is 16.39 (283.242 17.282), which can be inte6-preted as 16.39 lbm dry air...

Project Development Phases

All integrated energy resource optimization projects must begin with some type of study that identifies the opportunities and quantifies them in such a manner that a scope of work can be developed and financial decisions made. The multi-phased integrated approach involves a multidisciplinary team effort designed to process a large quantity and variety of information. The team should consist of technical experts from analysis, design, construction, OM& R, and M& V disciplines. These...

C

Denote specific heat at constant volume or constant pressure, respectively). In the ideal cycle, the heat added (Qjn) along the path B to C is thus The heat rejected along the path D to A is Thus, the net work (Wnet) of the cycle is Qin- Qout mcv (Tc-Tb)-(Td-T) (9-3) and the thermal efficiency (nth) of the cycle is

Title 1s PM10 Nonattainment Program

Particulate matter (PM) are small substances that are light enough to become airborne. They include smoke from burning coal, automobile exhaust, dust from industrial processes, and natural particles such as pollen. Particles are also formed in the air through reactions of nox, sox, VOC and ozone. It can contain metals, nitrates, sulfates, chlorides, fluorides, hydrocarbons, carbon silicates, and oxides. It can be corrosive, toxic to plants and animals, and harmful to humans. At high...

Superheated Vapor

Fig. 37-27 Illustration of Expansion Valve Operation. Source The Trane Company through the valve. The pressure reduction causes the liquid to boil, or flash. This heat absorbing process sensibly cools the liquid to the saturation temperature of 40 F (4 C), which corresponds to 69 psig (5.8 bar). The greatest limitation of a TXV is that its control can be unstable at low loads or under conditions of low-pressure differential across the valve. An electronic expansion valve (EXV) performs the same...

085

(hc - hd) , 145.4 Btu lbm , , Power output m - 20,000 Ibm h - 1,143 hp Net thermal output to process m (hd - ha) ai 20,000 Ibm h (1,056.3 - 180.0) Btu lbm 17,526MBtu h Actual heat drop (hc - hd)actual VT(hc - hd)ideal 0.5(1,201.7- 1,056.3) 72.7 Btu lbm Actual hd hc - rjT (hc 1,129 Btu lbm Fig. 11-47 Back-Pressure Turbine Operation. Fig. 11-47 Back-Pressure Turbine Operation. 2,545 Btu hp-h 2,545 Btu hp-h . AWR _-_-_ _-_ 35.0 lbm hp-h 35.0 lbm hp-h - - 2,994Btu hp-h

W

Similarly, in terms of kW, it is expressed as * At lower pressures, the pump work is negligible, but at higher pressures, it may play a somewhat larger role. In a 100 MW regeneration cycle, for example, the total pump work per unit of mass passing through the first stage turbine is 3.73 Btu lbm (8.68 kJ kg) compared to turbine work output of 422.5 Btu lbm (982.7 kJ kg) and heat input of 1134.4 Btu lbm (2,638.6 kJ kg) into the steam generator. Therefore, the pump work is 0.3 of the heat input...

3

As an example, for a required flow rate of 2,350 gpm (8,895 L m) at 365 ft (111 m) head loss, an impeller size of 10.5 in. (26.7 cm) has been selected. On the 3,500 rpm pump curve shown in Figure 31-25, the brake power is calculated, based on Equation 31-5, as follows The affinity laws can also be used to calculate performance of the selected pump at reduced speed. For example, at 1,750 rpm, flow rate would be calculated using Equation 31-6 as follows

Liquefied Petroleum and Natural Gases

Liquefied petroleum gases are propane with an HHV of 2,522 Btu cf (93,976 kJ m3), butane with an HHV of 3,260 Btu cf (121,476 kJ m3), or a mixture of the two. These fuel gases are obtained from natural gas or produced as a by-product from oil refining. In the refinement of wet, wellhead gas, the methane and ethane (and sometimes a small portion of the propane) are used for dry pipeline gas, while most of the propane and butane are used for LP gases. Commercially distributed LP mixtures can be...

Desiccant Air Drying Process

Desiccant dehumidifiers do not cool air to remove moisture. They attract moisture from air by creating an area of low vapor pressure at the surface of the desiccant. The pressure of the water in the air is higher, so the water vapor molecules move from the air to the desiccant and the air is dehumidified. As a wet desiccant is heated, its vapor pressure becomes high and it will give off moisture to the surrounding air. Water vapor moves back and forth from the air to the desiccant, depending on...

Overview of Technical Analysis Study Processes

While the technical analysis study process may consist of one, two, or even three phases, quality studies will all generally include the same basic components. These are Compiling all data collected during the preliminary study phase. Conducting in-depth interviews with the facility energy manager, engineers, and maintenance and operating personnel to assess the operating characteristics of existing energy systems and system improvement goals. Reviewing facility plans for other planned...

Re1

Two 6.6 MW Reciprocating Engines and 8,500 lbm h HRSGs Cogeneration System Plant Configuration Case GT-1 This cogeneration plant consists of three gas turbine generator sets, associated heat recovery boilers, electrical switchgear, and auxiliary equipment from Solar Turbines. Total plant capacity includes 14.3 MW of electricity at 60 F (15.6 C) outside temperature and 74,100 lbm h (33,611 kg h) of 150 psig (11.4 bar) steam. This configuration does not include supplemental firing of HRSGs. The...

Protection from Non Performance

A performance bond is a prudent means of protecting the owner from non-performance of the contractor. Should the contractor default on execution of the work, the owner will have the ability to complete the project using another contractor and the owner will be protected from the risk of cost overruns due to the need to bring a new contractor onboard mid-stream. This is, of course, provided the performance bond has been purchased in an appropriate amount. It is typical to require a performance...

Water Usage

The total water makeup rate (WMR) requirement for a cooling tower is the sum of losses from evaporation (E), blowdown (B), and drift (D), a term that refers to liquid droplets entrained in the exhaust air stream. All of the lost and removed water must be replenished with fresh makeup water. Using 1,000 Btu lbm (0.646 kWhh kg) as the amount of heat absorbed in the evaporation of water, evaporation rate, in gpm, can be calculated as In SI units, the evaporation rate, in lpm, would be (Tons x Btu...

Vapor Compression System Drivers

Vapor compression system drivers, which produce shaft rotational power, are essentially the same as those used for air compressors and other mechanical drive services applications. As with air compressors, the vapor compressor is indifferent to the type of driver, except with respect to the operating speed. Its brake power requirement is matched by the torque and rotational speed at the output coupling of the drive shaft. The energy requirement of the driver will be a function of the...

Power Plant Costs

Table 3-2 shows comparative characteristics of current and developing fossil-fueled generating cycle technologies by one nationally recognized source. Included are comparative heat rates, capital (overnight), and operations and maintenance (O& M) costs in 1987 MWh. O& M costs are differentiated between fixed and variable components. Overnight costs do not include financing costs during construction and other peripheral costs, such as site purchase and development. Actual turnkey costs...

Natural Gas Industry Restructuring Unbundling of 636

When FERC issued Order No. 636, known as the Restructuring Rule, in April 1992, the Order was designed to improve the industry's ability to compete effectively for new markets by allowing more efficient use of the interstate natural gas transmission system. Its purpose was to increase competition among gas sellers and diminish the perceived monopolistic market power of pipeline companies. This deregulation initiative shifted the gas purchasing responsibility from the pipeline to the LDC or...

Renewable Alternative Power Technologies

In addition to traditional forms of power generation that rely on finite reservesoffossilfuels,therearethree basic categories of renewable resourcesthatcanbeusedto generate power. Renewable resources are those that are replenished within the ecosystem(wind,water)orwhose source is so plentiful that it canbeconsideredaninfinite sup ply. One category uses renewablesasaprimemovercom-bustion fuel source. Examples include landfill-derived methane and wood gasifiers. Anothercategoryusesrenew-able...

Common Natural Gas Rate Schedules

Actual natural gas rate schedules include many of the same rate-design strategies previously mentioned. These rates are offered to customers who meet specific criteria. Commonly used natural gas rate schedules are Firm sales rates. These are the highest priority of service offered by LDCs. Gas is made available throughout the year, on an uninterrupted basis, to serve customers' needs. Typically, there are several categories of firm sales rates, such as residential, small commercial, and large...

Na

CO Levels were determined elsewhere to be below NAAQS limits, so were not modeled. 2. A value of 0.00 indicates a concentration of less than 0.01 ug m3. 3. GEP General Engineering Practice. Fig. 16-6 Example of a Summary of Air Dispersion Modeling Results. Source TA Engineering a pollutant in an attainment area, or a significant modification of an existing major source in such an area. The steps in a PSD review are similar to, but more elaborate than, those for state minor source review and are...

000

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 CO Emissions (ppm) Conversion Equations 2 OiI NaturaI Gas ppm (Ib MMBtu) *1290 ppm (Ib MMBtu) *1370 Ib MMBtu (ppm) 1290 Ib MMBtu (ppm) 1370 ppm (Ib MMBtu) *1260 ppm - (Ib MMBtu) *1340 Ib MMBtu (ppm) 1260 Ib MMBtu (ppm) 1340 Fig. 17-2 CO Emissions Conversion Curves (15 excess air). Source Cleaver Brooks Fig. 17-2 CO Emissions Conversion Curves (15 excess air). Source Cleaver Brooks 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 VOC Emissions (ppm) Conversion Equations 2...

Combined Cycle Systems

Figures 12-1a and b show a simple combined-cycle system featuring a gas turbine-generator with a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) and a steam turbine-generator, condenser, and auxiliary system. In this case, the HRSG is the heat exchanger that links the two cycles together by transferring the exhaust energy from the gasturbine topping cycle to the steam-turbine bottoming cycle. The benefit of combining these cycles is that combustion engine cycles are well suited for high-temperature...

Cooling and Dehumidifying

The process of sensible cooling is represented on the psychrometric chart by a horizontal line extended to the saturation line. If air is cooled sensibly, it changes in its db and wb temperature, RH, and total heat, but does not change in its moisture content, dewpoint temperature, or vapor pressure. For example, to determine how much heat must be removed to sensibly cool air having a db temperature of 80 F (27 C) and 50 RH to 50 F (10 C), identify the humidity ratio and enthalpy at 80 F (27 C)...

Materials Development

A comparison of conventional and future advanced materials for gas turbine design and the potential advantages of advanced materials are shown in Tables 10-2 and 10-3. Nickel-based and cobalt-based superalloys have allowed for greatly increased temperatures and produced high resistance to oxidation and corrosion. Superalloys show great strength and high resistance to oxidation at elevated temperatures as a result of the interaction between the alloy's composition and structure. Various...

Heat Transfer

Boilers are devices used to transfer heat. As defined in Chapter 2, heat is thermal energy that is transferred across the boundary of systems with differing temperatures, always in the direction of the lower temperature. Heat transfer occurs when two adjacent bodies of mass are not in equilibrium due to a difference in temperature. There are three general modes of heat transfer conduction, convection, and radiation. One or more of these accounts for heat transfer in all applications. All three...

Conventional Project Financing

Several steps can be taken to add performance-based contracting benefits to a municipal lease purchase arrangement or a conventional owner debt financing arrangement. To ensure increased profitability with the tax-exempt lease or other conventional financing agreement, a rigorous savings verification procedure should be put in place, as well as an ongoing OM& R program. These, along with other services and guarantees, can be Construction 1,100,000 Percent of Savings to Owner 20.00...

U

Overall heat transfer coefficient after fouling has occurred U Overall heat transfer coefficient of the clean The fouling factor is a measure of the decrease in heat transfer versus a clean surface resulting from fouling. It is a design parameter with typical values ranging from 0.001 to 0.01 hr ft2 F Btu (0.0002 to 0.002 hr m2 K Wh) included in the specification of all heat exchangers. Important considerations are the chemical composition of the exhaust stream and the exit temperature.

The Current Natural Gas Market

Natural gas is sold and or distributed to consumers by the LDCs. LDC natural gas rates are determined through a cost-of-service regulatory process under the jurisdiction of a PUC. Increasingly, though, consumers may now also purchase gas through a variety of other means usually a gas broker and have it transported to the city gate of the LDC. The city gate is the delivery point at which the LDC takes control of gas delivered by pipelines and moves it through its distribution system to the...

Historical Perspective

Over the past two decades, the natural gas industry has been transformed from a completely regulated industry to one in which market forces play a dominant role. Gas wellhead price deregulation, open access to pipeline transmission services, and comprehensive rate unbundling are three major shifts in federal policy designed to replace direct regulation with market forces. In recent history, however, the gas industry was governed primarily by regulation. Passage of the Natural Gas Act of 1938...

Emergency Response and Spare Parts

Emergency response procedures to equipment failure should be established for all critical systems. For systems under long-term preventative maintenance contracts, emergency service will often be a component of the contract. Provisions can be made for various levels of response time, depending on how critical system operation is to the facility. Provisions for temporary service should also be included, as appropriate. As noted in the prior discussion of the OM& R manuals, for each equipment...

30

* Current properties Source Solar Turbines * Current properties Source Solar Turbines corrosion and erosion resulting from poor air or fuel quality. Significant R& D has also been focused on high-temperature ceramics as structural materials for hot section components such as rotor blades, vanes, and combustor liners. Ceramics have the potential to advance gas turbine inlet temperatures beyond metal alloys. Various types of composites are being developed for different components. These...

Refrigeration Compressors

In a refrigeration-cycle system, the compressor raises the pressure of the refrigerant gas from evaporator pressure to condenser pressure. The compressor delivers the refrigerant to the condenser at a pressure and temperature at which the condensing process can be readily accomplished. Since thermal losses through the compressor casing are usually small and cannot be measured accurately, they are usually neglected. Hence, both polytropic (input) work and irreversible adiabatic (actual gas) work...

Limitations of NPV and IRR

When considering an investment, a positive NPV indicates that the investment is expected to produce a PV of all of the benefits, which outweighs the PV of all of the costs, given the cost of capital or the hurdle rate. However, difficulties may arise when comparing several investment options, each with a positive NPV. Also, because access to capital always has limitations, a consumer must often choose between several sound investment opportunities. While NPV does consider all parts of the...

Fl

For the above example of a 10 F (5.5 C) temperature differential, this yields a tolerance of 10 . The test tolerance would allow for the chiller rated at an IPLV of 0.580 kW ton (0.170 kW kWT) to operate at 0.638 kW ton (0.187 kW kW). Correspondingly, recalculating the IPLV by substituting the maximum tolerance performance rating for each of the four load levels individually in Table 33-3 also yields an IPLV performance value of 0.638 kW ton (0.187 kWe kWr). In addition to these allowable...

Liquid Spray Tower

Liquid desiccant systems operate on the principle of chemical absorption of water vapor from air. A representative liquid system featuring LiCl solution is shown schematically in Figure 39-5. In this system, air to be conditioned is cooled and dehumidified by contacting the desiccant (absorbent) solution in the conditioner. Heat extracted from the air by the desiccant solution is transferred to the coolant by continuously recirculating the solution through a heat exchanger. Coolant flow through...

Baseline and Performance Measurement

An optional additional step in the implementation process is the development of a savings verification program. This can serve to document the success of the project over time in generating projected savings or meeting anticipated operational goals. In various types of performance-based contracts, savings verification programs establish the basis of payments made by the host to the project financier or prime contractor. Even when not a contract requirement, savings verification programs provide...

Application and System Data Requirements

Site-specific prime mover and system data required in virtually all prime mover evaluations are Type of application and current supply system Metered or engineering estimate of loads versus time, outdoor temperature, occupancy, or production Operating cost of the current supply systems Current on-site utility-derived system capacity, service entry characteristics, and reliability Site-specific conditions, such as elevation and ambient temperature ranges, that will impact the performance of...

N

One axis tracking PV array with axis oriented south. day. To get an estimate of the power output of the solar cell under actual site conditions, the following calculation is used to account for actual cell efficiency, available radiation, and PV configuration P PV power output (in Watts per ft2 or m2) pv Solar cell efficiency Fig. 14-47b Single-Axis Tracking. Source PV Watts, DoE NREL controlled environment and should only be used for comparison between solar cell models. In the actual site...

Economic Evaluation of DSM Programs

Cost-benefit analyses of DSM programs are typically viewed from several perspectives. In order to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of DSM options as alternatives to supply options, an industry standard set of cost-benefit tests were developed. All DSM program costs and the associated energy, demand, and other benefits are summarized and compared with supply-based avoided costs through application of these tests. Utilities, as part of their IRP processes, evaluate programs and individual measures...

Energy Policy Act of 1992

Much like the PURPA legislation of 1978, EPAct 92 is seen as a watershed in the evolution of the electric industry. While this landmark federal legislation is still taking hold, through the slow process of federal and state regulation development, its impact has already been quite profound. A principal goal of EPAct 92 was the infusion of competition into the electric generation market. This is initiated through PUHCA amendments that form a new class of IPPs, the EWGs, that includes...