Thermal Design Of Heattransfer Equipment

Introduction to Thermal Design 11-4

Approach to Heat-Exchanger Design 11-4

Overall Heat-Transfer Coefficient 11-4

Mean Temperature Difference 11-4

Countercurrent or Cocurrent Flow 11-4

Reversed, Mixed, or Cross-Flow 11-5

Thermal Design for Single-Phase Heat Transfer 11-5

Double-Pipe Heat Exchangers 11-5

Baffled Shell-and-Tube Exchangers 11-7

Thermal Design of Condensers 11-11

Single-Component Condenser 11-11

Multicomponent Condensers 11-12

Thermal Design of Reboilers 11-13

Kettle Reboilers 11-13

Vertical Thermosiphon Reboilers 11-13

Forced-Recirculation Reboilers 11-13

Thermal Design of Evaporators 11-13

Forced-Circulation Evaporators 11-13

Long-Tube Vertical Evaporators 11-14

Short-Tube Vertical Evaporators 11-15

Miscellaneous Evaporator Types 11-15

Heat Transfer from Various Metal Surfaces 11-16

Effect of Fluid Properties on Heat Transfer 11-17

Effect of Noncondensables on Heat Transfer 11-18

Batch Operations: Heating and Cooling of Vessels 11-18

Nomenclature 11-18

Applications 11-18

Effect of External Heat Loss or Gain 11-19

Internal Coil or Jacket Plus External Heat Exchange 11-19

Equivalent-Area Concept 11-19

Nonagitated Batches 11-19

Storage Tanks 11-19

Thermal Design of Tank Coils 11-20

Nomenclature 11-20

Maintenance of Temperature 11-20

Heating 11-20

Heating and Cooling of Tanks 11-20

Tank Coils 11-20

Teflon Immersion Coils 11-21

Bayonet Heaters 11-22

External Coils and Tracers 11-22

Jacketed Vessels 11-22

Extended or Finned Surfaces 11-22

Finned-Surface Application 11-22

High Fins 11-22

Low Fins 11-23

Fouling and Scaling 11-23

Control of Fouling 11-23

Fouling Transients and Operating Periods 11-23

Removal of Fouling Deposits 11-24

Fouling Resistances 11-24

Typical Heat-Transfer Coefficients 11-24

Thermal Design for Solids Processing 11-24

Conductive Heat Transfer 11-24

Contactive (Direct) Heat Transfer 11-28

Convective Heat Transfer 11-30

Radiative Heat Transfer 11-30

Scraped-Surface Exchangers 11-33

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