where b = (1.23)(10-2) (SI) or (5.23)(105) (U.S. customary).

Wender and Cooper [Am. Inst. Chem. Eng. J., 4, 15 (1958)] developed an empirical correlation for internal walls:

hDp/k iff j043 _ ^ iDDpC j^f \080/jft 1 - \cp) \ V / \cj \Pg where b _ (3.51)(10-4) (SI) or 0.033 (U.S. customary) and CR _ correction for displacement of the immersed tube from the axis of the vessel (see the reference). For external walls:

where x _ 0.44LHcs/Dfig and f is given by Fig. 11-33. An important feature of this equation is inclusion of the ratio of bed depth to vessel diameter LH/Dt.

For dilute fluidized beds on the shell side of an unbaffled tubular bundle Genetti and Knudsen [Inst. Chem. Eng. (London) Symp. Ser. 3,172 (1968)] obtained the relation:

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