FIG. 11-110 Phase diagram of the brine.

below pH 8.5). Such slightly alkaline brines are generally less corrosive than neutral or acid ones, although with high alkalinity the activity may increase.

If the untreated brine has the proper pH value, the acidifying effect of the dichromate may be neutralized by adding commercial flake caustic soda (76 percent pure) in quantity that corresponds to 27 percent of sodium dichromate used. Caustic soda must be thoroughly dissolved in warm water before it is added to the brine.

Recommended inhibitor (sodium dichromate) concentrations are 2 kg/m3 of CaCl2 and 3.2 kg/m3 of NaCl brine. Sodium dichromate when dissolved in water or brine makes the solution acid. Steel, iron, copper, or red brass can be used with brine circulating systems. Calcium chloride systems are generally equipped with all-iron-and-steel pumps and valves to prevent electrolysis in event of acidity. Copper and red brass tubing are used for calcium chloride evaporators. Sodium chloride systems are using all-iron or all-bronze pumps.

Organic Compounds (Inhibited Glycols) Ethylene glycol is colorless and practically odorless and completely miscible with water. Advantages are low volatility and relatively low corrosivity when properly inhibited. Main drawbacks are relatively low heat-transfer coefficients at lower temperatures due to high viscosities (even higher than for propylene glycol). It is somewhat toxic, but less harmful than methanol water solutions. It is not appropriate for food industry and should not stand in open containers. Preferably waters that are classified as soft and are low in chloride and sulfate ions should be used for preparation of ethylene glycol solution.

Pure ethylene glycol freezes at -12.7°C. Exact composition and temperature for eutectic point are unknown, since solutions in this region turn to viscous, glassy mass that makes it difficult to determine the true freezing point. For the concentrations lower than eutectic, ice forms on freezing, while on the concentrated, solid glycol separates from the solution.

Ethylene glycol normally has pH of 8.8 to 9.2 and should not be used below 7.5. Addition of more inhibitor can not restore the solution to original condition. Once inhibitor has been depleted, it is recommended that the old glycol be removed from the system and the new charge be installed.

Propylene glycol is very similar to ethylene glycol, but it is not toxic and is used in direct contact with food. It is more expensive and, having higher viscosity, shows lower heat transfer coefficients.

Methanol water is an alcohol-base compound. It is less expensive than other organic compounds and, due to lower viscosity, has better heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics. It is used up to -35°C. Disadvantages are (1) considered more toxic than ethylene glycol and thus more suitable for outdoor applications (2) flammable and could be assumed to be a potential fire hazard.

For ethylene glycol systems copper tubing is often used (up to 3 in), while pumps, cooler tubes, or coils are made of iron, steel, brass, copper, or aluminum. Galvanized tubes should not be used in ethylene glycol systems because of reaction of the inhibitor with the zinc.

Methanol water solutions are compatible with most materials but in sufficient concentration will badly corrode aluminum.

Ethanol water is a solution of denatured grain alcohol. Its main advantage is that it is nontoxic and thus is widely used in the food and chemical industry. By using corrosion inhibitors it could be made non-corrosive for brine service. It is more expensive than methanol water and has somewhat lower heat transfer coefficients. As an alcohol derivate it is flammable.

Secondary refrigerants shown below, listed under their generic names, are sold under different trade names. Some other secondary refrigerants appropriate for various refrigeration application will be listed under their trade names. More data could be obtained from the manufacurer.

Syltherm XLT (Dow Corning Corporation). A silicone polymer (Dimethyl Polysiloxane); recommended temperature range -70°C to 250°C; odorless; low in acute oral toxicity; noncorrosive toward metals and alloys commonly found in heat transfer systems.

Syltherm 800 (Dow Corning Corporation). A silicone polymer (Dimethyl Polysiloxane); recommended temperature range -40°C to 400°C; similar to Syltherm XLT, more appropriate for somewhat higher temperatures; flash point is 160°C.

D-limonene (Florida Chemicals). A compound of optically active terpene (C10H16) derived as an extract from orange and lemon oils; limited data shows very low viscosity at low temperatures—only one centipoise at -50°C; natural substance having questionable stability.

Therminol D-12 (Monsanto). A synthetic hydrocarbon; clear liquid;

recommended range -40°C to 250°C; not appropriate for contact with food; precautions against ignitions and fires should be taken with this product; could be found under trade names Santotherm or Gilotherm.

Therminol LT (Monsanto). Akylbenzene, synthetic aromatic (C10H14); recommended range -70°C to -180°C; not appropriate for contact with food; precautions against ignitions and fire should be taken dealing with this product.

Dowtherm J (Dow Corning Corporation). A mixture of isomers of an alkylated aromatic; recommended temperature range -70°C to 300°C; noncorrosive toward steel, common metals and alloys; combustible material; flash point 58°C; low toxic; prolonged and repeated exposure to vapors should be limited 10 ppm for daily exposures of eight hours.

Dowtherm Q (Dow Corning Corporation). A mixture of dyphenyle-hane and alkylated aromatics; recommended temperature range -30°C to 330°C; combustible material; flash point 120°C; considered low toxic, similar to Dowtherm J.

Safety in Refrigeration Systems This is of paramount importance and should be considered at every stage of installation.

The design engineer should have safety as the primary concern by choosing suitable system and refrigerant: selecting components, choosing materials and thicknesses of vessels, pipes, and relief valves of pressure vessels, proper venting of machine rooms, and arranging the equipment for convenient access for service and maintenance (piping arrangements, valve location, machine room layout, etc.). He or she should conform to the stipulation of the safety codes, which is also important for the purpose of professional liability.

During construction and installation, the installer's good decisions and judgments are crucial for safety, because design documentation never specifies all details. This is especially important when there is reconstruction or repair while the facility has been charged.

During operation the plant is in the hands of the operating personnel. They should be properly trained and familiar with the installation. Very often, accidents are caused by an improper practice, such as making an attempt to repair when proper preparation is not made. Operators should be trained in first-aid procedures and how to respond to emergencies.

Most frequently needed standards and codes are listed below, and the reader can find comments in: W. F. Stoecker: Industrial Refrigeration, Vol. 2. Ch. 12, Business News Publishing Co., Troy, MI. 1995; ASHRAE Handbook Refrigeration System and Applications, 1994, Ch. 51. Some important standards and codes on safety that a refrigeration engineer should consult are: ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 15-92—Safety Code for Mechanical Refrigeration, ASHRAE, Atlanta GA, 1992; ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 34-92—Number Designation of Refrigerants, ASHRAE, Atlanta GA, 1992; ANSI/ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, ASME, New York, 1989; ANSI/ASME Code for Pressure Piping, B31, B31.5-1987, ASME, New York, 1987; ANSI/IIAR 2— 1984, Equipment, Design and Installation of Ammonia Mechanical Refrigeration Systems, IIAR, Chicago, 1984; IIAR Minimum Safety Criteria for a Safe Ammonia Refrigeration Systems, Bulletin 109; IIAR, IIAR Start-up, Inspection, and Maintenance of Ammonia Mechanical Refrigeration Systems, Bulletin 110, Chicago, 1988; IIAR Recommended Procedures in Event of Ammonia Spills, Bulletin No. 106, IIAR, Chicago, 1977; A Guide to Good Practices for the Operation of an Ammonia Refrigeration System, IIAR Bulletin R1, 1983.

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