where the value of the term cos-1 (1 — 2 lc/Ds) is in radians and is between 0 and n/2. Ssb is plotted in Fig. 11-7, based on TEMA Class R standards. Since pipe shells are generally limited to diameters below 24 in, the larger sizes are shown by using the rolled-shell specification. Allowance should be made for especially tight or loose construction.

10. Area for flow through window Sw. This area is obtained as the difference between the gross window area Swg and the window area occupied by tubes Swt:

FIG. 11-7 Estimation of shell-to-baffle leakage area [Eq. (11-13)]. To convert inches to meters, multiply by 0.0254; to convert square inches to square meters, multiply by (6.45)(10—4). Note that lc and Ds have units of inches.
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