List of Figures

2.1 Plan view of the test section 19

2.2 Cascade coordinates and parameters 20

2.3 Sketch of the naphthalene blade 20

2.4 Cascade blade balance test data 21

2.5 Incoming flow velocity and turbulence intensity 22

2.6 Flow chart of data acquisition system (Wang, 1997) 23

2.7 Four-axis table (Wang, 1997) 24

2.8 Calibration curves for LVDT PCA-220-010 gauge 25

3.1 Laminar boundary layer flow on the tip-endwall 36

3.2 Turbulent boundary layer on the tip-endwall 37

3.3 Turbulent boundary layer on the tip-endwall (grid turbulence) 38

3.4 Cps and Cascade flow at midspan 39

3.5 CpS near the blade tip for different tip clearances 40

3.6 Surface flow visualization without tip clearance 41

3.7 Tip-endwall surface flow visualization 42

3.8 Tip surface flow visualization 43

3.9 Suction side surface flow visualization 44

3.10 Pressure side surface flow visualization 45

3.11 Secondary flows with no tip clearance 46

3.12 Tip leakage vortex and secondary flows at t jC = 0.86% 47

3.13 Tip leakage vortex and secondary flows at r/C = 1.72% 48

3.14 Tip leakage vortex and secondary flows at r/C = 3.45% 49

3.15 Leakage flow inside the tip clearance at r/C = 3.45% 50

3.16 Secondary flow model proposed by Wang (1997) 51

4.1 Mid-span average Sh 65

4.2 Mid-span average ShjReJx 66

4.4 Local Sh on the mid-span pressure surface 68

4.5 Local Sh on the mid-span suction surface 69

4.6 Sh contour on the pressure surface with no tip clearance 70

4.7 Sh surface plot on the pressure surface with no tip clearance 71

4.8 Local Sh on the pressure surface with no tip clearance 72

4.9 Local ShjReJx on the pressure surface with no tip clearance 73

4.10 Sh contour on the suction surface with no tip clearance 74

4.11 Sh surface plot on the suction surface with no tip clearance 75

4.12 Local Sh on the suction surface with no tip clearance 76

4.13 Local ShjReJJ on the suction surface with no tip clearance 77

4.14 Spanwise average Sh in 3D region 78

4.15 Spanwise average ShjReJx in 3D region 79

4.16 Sh contour on the pressure surface at different tip clearance levels 80

4.17 Sh surface plot on the pressure surface at different tip clearance levels ... 81

4.18 Local Sh on the pressure surface at different tip clearance levels 82

4.19 Local ShjReJx on the pressure surface at different tip clearance levels ... 83

4.20 Average Sh on the pressure surface at different tip clearance levels 84

4.21 Sh contour on the pressure surface at t jC = 0.86% 85

4.22 Sh surface plot on the pressure surface at r jC = 0.86% 86

4.23 Local Sh on the pressure surface at r jC = 0.86% 87

4.24 Local ShjReJJ on the pressure surface at r jC = 0.86% 88

4.25 Local ShjReJJ on the pressure surface: effect of turbulence 89

4.26 Average Sh on the pressure surface at r jC = 0.86% 90

4.27 Sh contour on the suction surface at different tip clearance levels 91

4.28 Sh surface plot on the suction surface at different tip clearance levels 92

4.29 Local Sh on the suction surface at different tip clearance levels 93

4.30 Local ShjReJJ on the suction surface at different tip clearance levels ... 94

4.31 Average Sh on the suction surface at different tip clearance levels 95

4.32 Sh contour on the suction surface at r/C = 0.86% 96

4.33 Sh surface plot on the suction surface at r/C = 0.86% 97

4.34 Local Sh on the suction surface at r/C = 0.86% 98

4.35 Local ShjReJx2 on the suction surface at r/C = 0.86% 99

4.36 Local ShjReJx on the suction surface: effect of turbulence 100

4.37 Average Sh on the suction surface at r/C = 0.86% 101

4.38 Tip surface coordinates 102

4.39 Sh contour on the tip surface 103

4.40 Sh contour on the tip surface 104

4.41 Local Sh on the tip surface at different clearance levels 105

4.42 Local Sh on the tip surface at different clearance levels (continued) 106

4.43 Local Sh on the tip surface at different clearance levels 107

4.44 Local Sh on the tip surface at different clearance levels (continued) 108

4.45 Sh contour on the tip surface at r/C = 0.86% 110

4.46 Local Sh on the tip surface at r/C = 0.86% Ill

4.47 Local Sh on the tip surface at r/C = 0.86% (continued) 112

4.48 Local Sh/Reon the tip surface at r/C = 0.86% 113

4.49 Local Sh/Reon the tip surface at r/C = 0.86% (continued) 114

4.50 Averaged Sh on the tip surface 115

5.1 Moving wall apparatus used to simulate rotation 117

5.2 Comparison of Sherwood number data for r/C = 6.9%, EES=0 with flat end wall 119

5.3 Sherwood number contours for Re = 2.7 x 105 122

5.4 Sherwood number contours for Re = 2.7 x 105 123

5.5 Sherwood number contours for Re = 2.7 x 105 124

5.6 Effect of endwall motion on Sherwood number for r/C = 0.6% 125

5.7 Effect of endwall motion on Sherwood number for r/C = 0.6% 126

5.8 Effect of endwall motion on Sherwood number for r/C = 0.86% 127

5.9 Effect of endwall motion on Sherwood number for r/C = 0.86% 128

5.10 Effect of endwall motion on Sherwood number for r/C = 1.72% 129

5.11 Effect of endwall motion on Sherwood number for r/C = 1.72% 130

5.12 Effect of endwall motion on Sherwood number for r/C = 3.45% 131

5.13 Effect of endwall motion on Sherwood number for r/C = 3.45% 132

5.14 Effect of endwall motion on Sherwood number for r/C = 6.9% 133

5.15 Effect of endwall motion on Sherwood number for r/C = 6.9% 134

6.1 Perspective view of blade in AFTRF 142

6.2 Earlier work using Inconel heater 143

6.3 Thermogram of tip surface 144

6.4 Sketch of proposed design showing connector strips 146

6.5 Coordinates of blade, mm 147

6.6 Enlarged view of fig. 6.5 147

6.7 An alternative heater foil boundary that has extensions near the trailing edge. 148

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