Figure Captions

Fig. 1 Experimental Setup for Coannular Pipe Flow Mixing Experiment

Fig. 2 RMS and Average Concentration vs. Radial Location, Time-Varying Parabolic Profile and Genetic Algorithm Results

Fig. 3 RMS and Average Concentration vs. Radial Location, LES Output and Genetic Algorithm Results Given LES Data

Fig. 4 Time-Averaged Radial Velocity Profiles, x/d = 24

Fig. 5 Time-Averaged Results of LES Model vs. Experiment for Various Mixing Lengths for Methane

Fig. 6 RMS of Methane Concentration, LES vs. GA (Experimental) Results, x/d = 24

Details of Large Eddy Simulation Software Model Used

Grid System

Non-uniform in radial direction, clustered grids near central pipe

Grid Size

128x64x47 (x=2Douter, ©=360°, R=Doute/2)

Accuracy

Fourth-Order in Space, Third-Order in Time

Subgrid Turbulence Model

Germano Dynamics

Inlet Flow Boundary Conditions

Stored time serial results from a separate3-D LES for fully developed coannular pipe flow

Wall Treatment

Wall Function

Steps for Statistically Stationary State

50,000

Typical CPU Time

~ 3 days on Alpha Dec 500au

Test Matrix for Methane and Ethane Experimentsa

Axial

Azimuthal

Reynolds

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