Contents

1 Introduction 8

2 Experimental Facilities, Instrumentation and Procedures 10

2.1 Experimental Facilities 10

2.1.1 Wind tunnel 10

2.1.2 Test section 11

2.1.3 Linear turbine cascade with tip clearance 11

2.1.4 Test blade 12

2.1.5 Qualification of the test section 13

2.2 Experimental Instrumentation 13

2.2.1 Pressure measurement 13

2.2.2 Temperature measurement 14

2.2.3 Data acquisition system 15

2.2.4 Setup for the naphthalene blade 15

2.2.5 Hot wire anemometry 16

2.3 Experimental Procedures 16

2.3.1 Procedures for data reduction 16

3 Flow Field Characterization and Visualization 26

3.1 Flow Field Characterization 26

3.1.1 Laminar boundary layer flow on the tip-endwall 26

3.1.2 Turbulent boundary layer flow on the tip-endwall 26

3.1.3 Grid generated high turbulence 27

3.1.4 Static pressure distribution and flow 27

3.1.5 Near-tip static pressure distribution 28

3.2 Flow Visualization 28

3.2.1 Surface flow visualization 28

3.2.2 Surface flow near the endwall with no tip clearance 29

3.2.3 Surface flow on the tip-endwall with tip clearance 30

3.2.4 Surface flow on the tip surface 31

3.2.5 Surface flow on the blade near-tip surfaces 32

3.2.6 Smoke wire visualization 32

3.3 Summary 34

4 Mass/Heat Transfer Measurement 52

4.1 Mass/Heat Transfer from Blade Surfaces (No Clearance) 52

4.2 Mass/Heat Transfer from the Near-Tip Blade Surfaces 55

4.3 Mass/Heat Transfer from the Tip Surface 59

4.3.1 Effect of tip clearance level 59

4.3.2 Effect of mainstream stream Reynolds number and turbulence ... 60

4.4 Summary 61

5 Tip Mass Transfer Measurements With Endwall Motion 116

5.1 Description of the moving wall apparatus 116

5.2 Mass transfer field on the tip 118

5.3 Summary 121

6 Flow and Heat Transfer in the Tip Region and Endwall Region of an Annular Cascade 135

6.1 Turbine research facility modifications performed for the specific research program 136

6.2 Project Results 137

6.2.1 Endwall coolant injection from the wheelspace cavity and its influence on turbine mainstream aerodynamics 138

6.2.2 Turbine tip aerodynamics under the influence of coolant injection from a tip trench 140

6.2.3 Heat transfer measurements on the tip surface using liquid crystal thermography 141

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