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and are attached to the endwalls of the triangular section and the endwalls of the tailboard section.

The top wall (tip-endwall) simulates the casing of the turbine and the tip clearance region near the central blade is the main focus of this research. The space between the three middle blades and the tip-endwall forms the blade tip clearance, which can be varied by adding aluminum spacers with different thicknesses between the blades and the bottom wall. The thicknesses of the spacers and the corresponding tip clearances employed in this study are listed in table 2.1. A rectangular Plexiglas window covering most of the tip clearance region is opened on the tip-endwall for observation use.

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