Garage Sale Toolkit

How to Get Your Home in Order Almost Immediately

Declutter Fast How to Get Your Home in Order Almost Immediately is a systematic and a well-planned approach that helps individuals declutter their entire living space or offices instantly. Within the program, individuals learn the strategies they can use to avoid procrastination with just five minutes. It is a product of Mimi Tanner who encourages individuals to make a distinction between the cloths and the shoes that they wear from the items they need to dispose of. The program helps individuals put their houses in order by following just simple steps. It is a 71-page book and will help you make drastic changes in your house, allowing you to pay attention to what is more urgent and significant. It is a legitimate program and will help you put your home in order over a short period of time. Tens of thousands of individual of individuals have benefited from the program. You too can benefit immensely. More here...

Declutter Fast How To Get Your Home In Order Almost Immediately Summary


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My Declutter Fast How To Get Your Home In Order Almost Immediately Review

Highly Recommended

Recently several visitors of blog have asked me about this manual, which is being advertised quite widely across the Internet. So I purchased a copy myself to find out what all the publicity was about.

This book served its purpose to the maximum level. I am glad that I purchased it. If you are interested in this field, this is a must have.

Extraction from Liquids

Solid-phase extraction (SPE) In SPE, a solid, or a liquid phase adhered onto a solid support, is used to selectively (and reversibly) retain sample components as the sample solution passes through the extraction device, usually configured as a packed bed or disk. The solute is then removed from ('washed off') the sorbent phase with the extracting solvent. In essence, this extraction procedure can be thought of as a crude chromatographic method and many of the same principles, and stationary phases, apply. SPE is especially useful for improving the selectivity of an extraction for instance to 'clean up' dirty samples for analysis. The selective stationary phases can retain solutes based on ionic or hydrogen bonding, or dipole-dipole, dipole-induced dipole, or dispersion forces. The primary advantages of the technique, in addition to selectivity, include speed, efficiency, reproducibility, economics, and safety.

1913Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act Cercla or Superfund 42 USC ss 9601 et seq 1980

CERCLA (pronounced serk-la) provides a Federal Superfund to clean up uncontrolled or abandoned hazardous waste sites as well as accidents, spills, and other emergency releases of pollutants and contaminants into the environment. Through the Act, EPA was given power to seek out those parties responsible for any release and assure their cooperation in the cleanup. EPA cleans up orphan sites when potentially responsible parties (PRPs) cannot be identified or located, or when they fail to act. Through various enforcement tools, EPA obtains private party cleanup through orders, consent decrees, and other small party settlements. EPA also recovers costs from financially viable individuals and companies once a response action has been completed. It is authorized to implement the Act in all 50 states and U.S. territories. Superfund site identification, monitoring, and response activities in states are coordinated through the state environmental protection or waste management agencies.

183 Combustion Modification

Handy and Kelcher 92 showed that proper burner maintenance significantly reduces the fuel consumption by 7 x 106Btu hr for each ethylene-cracking furnace. Reducing fuel consumption indirectly reduces pollutant emissions because less flue gases are generated. Similarly, Stansifer 93 showed that cleaning up the fuel gas to an ethylene-cracking furnace reduces burner maintenance and improves thermal efficiency, which again reduces pollutant emissions. The fuel contains moisture and heavy hydrocarbons including tar-like material that causes coke buildup on the burners which detrimentally affects performance. A combined filter and coalescer system are used to remove the water and solids. McAdams et al. 94 list a number of potential maintenance issues that can adversely affect the performance of low NOx burners. These issues include fuel tip orifice plugging, tip coking, fuel line flow restrictions, air inlet blockage, air leakage into the furnace, tip overheating, refractory damage, and...

Protein Purification by Immunoaffinity Chromatography

The purification of high-value products from complex biological matrices such as fermentation broths or extracts still represents a considerable challenge. In such preparative applications there is clearly a requirement to deal with large quantities of biological matrices (either fermentation broths or e.g. plasma after varying degrees of preliminary clean-up) compared to the analytical examples cited above. The use of larger columns also means that larger quantities of antibody are required in order to prepare sufficient immunosorbent resulting in considerable expense, which can effectively limit the range of applications. A further consequence of the high cost of the columns is the need to protect them from contamination or mechanical damage which might shorten the lifetime of the column. In addition, where the purified proteins from immunoaffinity chromatography are designed for use in the clinic it is important to ensure that the antibody does not contaminate the product due to...

Gasbase Drilling Fluids Technology

Around 1950, small rigs drilling shot-holes for seismic exploration began to use compressed air in areas where water was scarce (West Texas) or where temperatures were low (Canada).23S In May 1951, El Paso Natural Gas Co. in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico, began drilling with gas to avoid loss of circulation in the Mesa Verde section from 4,000-5,000 ft (1,200-1,500 m). Rate of penetration and footage per bit increased greatly. More important, well clean-up was facilitated, and productivity was much higher than when mud was used.240 Economical development of the extensive San Juan Basin gas fields (1951-53) was made possible by use of gas as the drilling fluid.

Solidphase Extraction

Owing to their ability to bind antigens specifically, antibodies have been used in immunoafRnity chromatography and immunoextraction protocols specifically to enrich an analyte prior to its quantification in, for example, medical, food and environmental analysis. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that the natural receptors can be successfully replaced by imprinted polymers. The use of imprinted polymers for sample concentration and clean-up by solid-phase extraction is attractive due to their high specificity and stability, and also their compatibility with both aqueous and organic solvents. Often the work-up of samples in routine analysis involves a solvent extraction step or a solid-phase extraction step with a more general adsorbent, e.g. an ion exchange or hydrophobic resin. This could be replaced by solid-phase extraction with an imprinted polymer. The advantages are an increased selectivity of the extraction step, and a reduced solvent consumption.

311 Workplace Legislation

The Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992 tidy up some 38 pieces of legislation concerned with the workplace, including parts of the Factories Act 1961 and the Offices, Shops and Railway Premises Act 1963. They deal with such matters as the working environment, floors and stairs, facilities and housekeeping.

94 Environmental Impact

A well-managed field should be compatible with both the surface and subsurface environment. The advantages of operating a field with prudent consideration of environmental issues can pay economic dividends. In addition to improved public relations, a sensitivity to environmental issues can minimize adverse environmental effects that may require costly remediation and financial penalties. Remediation is often in the form of clean-up, such as the clean-up required after the oil spill from the Exxon-Valdez oil tanker in Alaska. New technologies are being developed to improve our ability to clean-up environmental pollutants. For example, bioremediation uses living microorganisms or their enzymes to accelerate the rate of degradation of environmental pollutants Westlake, 1999 .

Hydrocyclones and Flotation

Flotation was practised extensively on fixed offshore platforms throughout the 1970s and 1980s to clean-up produced water prior to overboard discharge. As the volumes of produced water have increased with field life, water-handling facilities have become constrained. Operators have retrofitted produced water processing capacity using hydrocyclones rather than flotation machines, because the former have a smaller footprint per volumetric flow rate of produced water treated. However, flotation oil-water separation technology has a place on offshore platforms as a polishing stage for produced water clean-up following initial treatment by hydrocyclones. One design uses what is in principle a dissolved air flotation vessel downstream of the oil-water separation hydrocyclones.

734 Flue Gas Treatment

The loss of efficiency involved in cycling of gas temperatures between hot and cold parts of an IGCC have been pointed out on many occasions, and has been one of the principle driving forces behind the so far unsuccessful attempts at a hot, or at least warm, fuel gas clean-up. All current development efforts are based on performing all the gas clean up on the fuel gas side of the gas turbine, not least because many of these techniques are available from chemical applications. In this section we wish to review the possibilities for reducing the fuel gas treatment to the absolute minimum required by the gas turbine which after all can operate on (sulfur-containing) fuel oil and perform the rest of the gas clean-up as flue gas treatment as in the rest of the power industry.

Future Developments

In 1979 an oil industry task force recommended plate pack gravity separators or IGF for produced water clean-up. Six years later the first large hydrocyclone installation - about 15 m3 min1 - was operating successfully in the North Sea, so the points below relate only to the immediate future, perhaps prior to 2003. Table 6 Relative cost for clean-up plant (16000 m3d 1) Table 6 Relative cost for clean-up plant (16000 m3d 1)

Micropreparative OPLC Separations

Probably the most important application of layer switching is in sample clean-up based on a new connection between the layers. A special clean-up effect, sample application and reconcentration, can be achieved simultaneously as shown in Figure 6A, in which the upper plate serves for clean-up. Needless to say, these steps can both be performed in fully offline or fully online operating modes, or in freely chosen combinations of different offline and online steps.

Methods of Analysis for Aflatoxin M1

When cows consume aflatoxin in their feed, a small percentage of it is metabolized and excreted in the milk in the form of aflatoxin M1. Aflatoxin M1 is also toxic and carcinogenic, so methods have been developed to detect it in milk. Since infants and children are major consumers of milk products, the levels of concern for M1 in milk are set quite low by various countries, in the range of 0.05-0.5 gL_1. Analyses of milk and cheese samples at these low levels are more difficult. One method of analysis uses partition from the milk into chloroform and silica gel column clean-up before the TLC determination. Another method used extraction from the milk on to a C18 solid-phase extraction column and clean-up on a silica gel column before TLC or LC determination. An immunoaffinity column clean-up can also be used.

Battery Pack Safetyelectrolyte Spillage And Electric Shock

Neighboring vehicles, bystanders, and emergency and clean-up personnel. Some of the important issues that must be addressed in understanding what types of traction batteries are expected to be in production use over the next 5 to 10 years, including their form (liquid or gel type electrolyte), chemical properties of the traction batteries, and associated battery pack temperatures of the various electrolyte solutions are What are the safety problems associated with the electrolyte contact in the event of a rollover spillage to EV occupants, rescue teams, or clean-up personnel

Introduction to Liquid Liquid Hydrocyclones

This article covers the application of hydrocyclones to remove or concentrate dispersed oil from water. Two main classes of operation relating to their use with water-continuous liquid exist. Firstly as removers of oil contaminant from water (clean-up units) and secondly as a method of de-watering crude from wet oil fields (concentrator units). It excludes usage in relation to oil spills at sea, though feasibility studies have been technically successful. It also excludes applications where dispersed water (brine) is found in oil, though articles on this application - as yet only on the fringe of commercialization - may be found in the Hydrocyclone Conferences listed in the bibliography. Operation with oil-continuous liquid is difficult since interfacial effects are larger and break-up more likely as the brine droplets are less viscous than the continuous liquid. spread employment of solid-liquid hydrocyclones as in mineral processing or china clay production. Some salient comparisons...

Analysis of Antibiotic Residues in Food

For this application, SFC in combination with the universal flame ionization detector, or with highly sensitive mass spectrometric detection, shows a good balance between high resolution and good sample throughput, that can minimize the need for sample clean-up and be an optimal procedure in specific cases. An example of separation of veterinary antibiotics by SFC with UV detection prior to online SFC-MS can be seen in Figure 4. An alternative approach is the online coupling of SFE and SFC for solid or semi-solid samples, allowing the extraction of the fraction of interest and the online transfer of the solutes from the liquid or solid matrix directly to the chromatograph, reducing solvent usage and the need for clean-up.

Online Precolumn Derivatization

Online, pre-column derivatization is accomplished by incorporation of a derivatization reagent into the flow scheme of the LC. Since all of the derivatized products are injected into the LC, this mode of de-rivatization does not have the solvent dilution problem observed in offline derivatization. There are several requirements for the conduction of online pre-column derivatization (1) good chemical and or pressure stability of derivatization reagents in organic solvent (2) good solubility of derivatized products in the mobile phase (3) no precipitate or gas generated in the derivatization (4) compatibility of derivatization solvent with mobile phase and (5) minimum volume of derivatization solvent or well packed solidphase derivatization column. In online pre-column derivatization, the extraction and clean-up of complex samples often becomes part of the chromato-graphic operation, which can be automatically (computer microprocessor interface) performed via switching of valves....

Flowfield and Geometry

The overflow stream should be a small fraction of the feed, since the oil content in clean-up applications is typically below 1 . An approximate volumetric balance gives the interrelationship between the parameters of a de-contaminating hydrocyclone. If the volumetric feed concentration of oil Cf & 1 and the overflow and underflow concentrations Co,Cu are assumed to be 50 and 0 respectively, then the underflow rate Qu will be 98 of the feed rate Qf. For a wet oil concentrator however assuming Cf & 10 Qu will be & 80 of Qf. The overflow (reject) stream flow rate clearly is Qo Qf Qu. Usually droplets & 1 m-100 m Typical oil contaminant concentration in feed to first stage < 0.1 , oil contaminant concentration in feed to second clean-up stage 5-10 , wellhead oil concentration in feed to wet oil concentrator 5-50 No limitation, lateral acceleration up to & 0.1 'g' on floaters unimportant Both the clean-up and concentrator units use the same wall profile but the latter has...

538 The cost of failure to manage waste effectively

Where waste is not managed effectively, enforcement action may be taken with the purpose of securing the protection of the environment and compliance with regulatory requirements. The regulators have a range of enforcement options before prosecution is considered. Powers to issue notices requiring actions such as the clean up of land, compliance with discharge consents and compliance by waste operators with their licences. Under the Pollution Prevention Control Regulations31, prohibition notices can also be issued on premises where processes are carried out. In many cases, the worst consequence of a conviction for an offence relating to waste may be from the adverse publicity for the business as most offences are widely reported in journals, the local press and in serious cases, the national press. These reports can have a damaging effect on the company's reputation and can attract the attention of environmental interest groups.

Separation Efficiencies

To achieve the purity required of the underflow stream from a clean-up unit, its output rate is usually of the valuable product and its purity in the product stream s. For the clean-up units the fractional recovery y0 is however defined by the fraction of oil in the feed which appears in the reject (overflow) stream, and su for this operation is defined in terms of the oil (waste) content of the product (underflow) stream

Carbamate Insecticides In Foodstuffs Chromatography And Immunoassay

Taken place in extraction clean-up procedures, and in the final determination of pesticide residues in foodstuffs. This article examines recent progress, focusing primarily on simplified and miniaturized analytical methods for determining carbamate insecticides in foodstuffs, including fast and simple extraction clean up strategies, and the use of IA techniques for detection prior to laboratory analysis.

333 US Environmental Legislation

The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act 1980 (CERCLA, or Superfund) strengthens the regulation of hazardous wastes by the EPA It creates controls on hazardous waste sites and enforces clean-up of existing and abandoned sites. It seeks to identify potentially responsible persons (PRPs) and, where such parties are not found, it supervises a clean-up paid for from the Superfund. The Act has to be renewed periodically. The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act 1986 (SARA) renews the Superfund. The part of the

1729Detergents and anticorrosion additives

Fig. 17.16 The left- and right-hand columns represent respectively the percentage exhaust clean-up and actual output levels measured after 4000 and 15 000 miles respectively during road tests with Shell Advanced Diesel fuel. The exhaust emissions measurements were taken while running with the vehicle on a chassis dynamometer immediately after it had completed its road mileage Fig. 17.16 The left- and right-hand columns represent respectively the percentage exhaust clean-up and actual output levels measured after 4000 and 15 000 miles respectively during road tests with Shell Advanced Diesel fuel. The exhaust emissions measurements were taken while running with the vehicle on a chassis dynamometer immediately after it had completed its road mileage

Gas Tungsten Arc Welding GTAW

The biggest advantage of GTAW is that high quality welds can be made on almost any weldable metal or alloy. Another major advantage is that filler metal can be added to the weld pool independently of the arc current. With other arc welding processes, the rate of filler metal addition controls the arc current. Other advantages include low spatter, no slag and relatively easy clean up.

Coiled Tubing Return Flows

The clean-up process is not unlike cuttings transport in drilling, except that hole eccentricities here are more severe. Besides sand washing, coiled tubing is also used in paraffin cleanout, acid or cement squeezes, and mud displacement. Typical fluids may include nitrogen or non-Newtonian foams. Figure 5-17a displays a typical annulus encountered in coiled tubing applications note the large diameter ratio and the typically high eccentricities.

Chromatographic Methods for Carbamate Analysis

The sensitivity and selectivity of Krause's method have allowed its use for the determination of residues of NMCs in fruits and vegetables with great accuracy. Unfortunately, such methods involves extraction with methanol, and large amounts of sample and solvent are used. The clean-up, starting with successive liquid-liquid partition (LLP) steps, and finishing with elution of the target compounds on a Celite char-coal adsorbent column, is mainly responsible for the slowness and tediousness of the method, making the analysis of a large number of samples impractical. Usually, it is satisfactorily used as a reference method in collaborative studies and also to carry out validation of new methods. Different procedures for cleanup of crop extracts by employing either glass adsorbent columns and commercially available solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges have been compared and a specific solid-phase elution protocol employing a solvent polarity gradient proposed. A schematic outline of...

Exercise 1 A single level pad

To check if your pad is all good metal (no contamination or weld defects) cut your pad in half as shown in Fig. 8.7, and clean up or polish the sectioned face. This type of inspection technique is called a macro Inspection, and will show you if you are overlapping your welds properly.

Technoeconomical Analysis Of An Integrated Hydrogen Generator Fuel Cell System

In this respect, the work, carried out by the CNR-TAE Institute of Messina, in the framework of the JOULE II Programme Fuel Cell (funded in part by the Commission of the European Communities) regarded the development of a Hydrogen Generator for Fuel Cells, based on the CSPOM concept. An assessment of the requirements for clean-up of gases, according to the category of fuel cells has been made. Based upon the results of this evaluation, a balance of plant analysis, , has also been made to a) gather a basic design scheme of the integrated system, > ) identify further peripherical subsystems (if any), and envisage the optimal configuration for the integrated system, c) assess overall thermodynamic, thermal and electrical efficiencies, specifying (for each type of fuel cell) operating conditions, as well as most proper integration of heat and mass flows between fuel processor and electrochemical generator. As a part of the work performed 1,2 , in order to make an assessment of the...

232 The Environmental Protection Agency

The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) included a Council on Environmental Quality in the executive branch, and required environmental impact statements on all federal projects. The Environmental Protection Agency was then proposed and accepted. A prominent part of EPA is the administration of the Superfund to clean up old waste sites. EPA has responsibility for standards on hazardous, solid, and radioactive wastes. EPA also sets standards for radiation protection that are used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in its licensing and regulation.

Fuel Cell Stack Development Progress

Since the near-term strategy emphasizes fuel flexibility, the DOE program is developing fuel-flexible fuel processors that reform gasoline, ethanol, natural gas, and methanol to hydrogen. The state of fuel processor system development is currently lagging fuel cell stack development. This is especially true for PEM fuel cells because of reformate gas purity requirements. In terms of transient response time and start-up capabilities, fuel processing technology has not yet been demonstrated at the automotive scale. However, as shown in Figure 5, the DOE program has achieved encouraging progress as of 1996. Fuel processor power density, a key measure of performance and size, exceeds 500 W L (excluding CO clean-up system and controls). The year 2000 goal for the fuel processor system power density is 600 W L.

Application of the SDE to the Analysis of Fatty Biological Samples and Food

Samples can be accomplished before SDE by degradation of the matrix components entrapping the target compounds. Treatment with 1-2 M sulfuric acid followed by ultrasonication in a bath and heating of the sample during the SDE process has been found to be one of the most efficient procedures for breaking down the matrix structure allowing steam distillation of the analytes. Furthermore, this acid treatment allowed a simultaneous clean up of the final extract as the matrix components form more polar products, which can then be easily separated from the nonpolar analytes. According to the published results, most samples submitted to this kind of treatment did not require any additional clean up. Filek et al. report good recoveries for the SDE of OCPs from dairy products when using this type of acid pre-treatment in the range 83-126 for powdered milk and human milk spiked at the 20.0-51.3 ngg i level, and in the range of 73-111 for a certified dairy product (OCP levels ranging from 1.5 to...

Optimization of Separation Conditions

A general economic analysis of a purification process by PLC indicates that there are typically two situations to be considered. When the quantity to be purified is low, the optimization should be aimed at maximizing the production rate because time (labour) is the largest contribution to the purification cost. When large quantities have to be processed, the optimization should be aimed at reducing the solvent cost (solvent consumption and regeneration). Many strategies can be envisaged to reduce the cost of PLC, depending on the conditions of the purification in terms of expected production, required purity and recovery ratio, etc. For instance, a purification can be made in several steps. This is often advisable when the concentration of the product of interest in the crude feedstock is low (i.e. less than 50 ). In this respect, it is important to clean up the mixture to be purified as much as possible before injecting it (using a preliminary treatment such as flash chromatogra-phy,...

1653 Mobile Incinerators

Mobile incinerators are commonly used to clean up contaminated soil and water at Superfund sites. The entire incineration system, including the PCC, the SCC, and the pollution control equipment, is small enough to be transported by road. It can be quickly set up and is usually preferred for smaller size cleanups. One of the first applications to use OEC in incineration was at the Superfund cleanup site at the Denney Farm in McDowell, MO, starting in 1987 74 . The EPA mobile incinerator was used, along with an OEC incineration technology that was later awarded the prestigious Kirkpatrick Chemical Engineering Achievement Award for the results at this cleanup 75 . Dioxin-contaminated liquids and solids were successfully treated. The OEC system showed impressive performance compared to the original air fuel system. The throughput was increased by 171 , the specific fuel consumption decreased by 61 , the residence time in the SCC increased by 21 , and CO spikes were reduced, while NOx...

Improvement of the Separation Process

Figure 8 Configuration used for online sample clean-up and derivatization. Continuous lines, derivatization dotted lines, transfer and separation. Figure 8 Configuration used for online sample clean-up and derivatization. Continuous lines, derivatization dotted lines, transfer and separation.

643 Electrical propulsion system

The basic principles of the reformer (2) and fuel cell (5) have been described previously. The oxidiser unit (3) is more accurately referred to as the 'flue gas clean-up unit'. This reduces harmful (NOX) gases. The air compressor (4) provides the supply of oxygen to the oxidiser unit and fuel cell. The compressor is powered by the battery (8). The battery also provides the start-up energy for the system. This may take up to 15 minutes. It could be provided by an external power source. The internal battery will be recharged during flight. The DC DC converter (6) transforms the low-voltage DC supply from the fuel cells to the inverter (7) and then to the electric motor (9). The controller (10) provides the overall system control. This includes

1381 Supercritical fluids

With the addition of appropriate chelating agents, as described by Saito etal.(49), metals can be effectively extracted from solutions and soils with supercritical carbon dioxide which is also used, as discussed by Yazdi and Beekman(50) to recover uranium from the aqueous solutions produced in the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels. The main application of supercritical water has been in the oxidation of hazardous organic materials since water is readily miscible with both oxygen and organics and very high degrees of destruction can be achieved with very short residence times. This technology also finds use in the destruction of chemical weapons and stockpiled explosives, as well as in the clean-up of industrial and municipal wastes.

Fuel Cells From The Laboratory To The Road

The PEM Fuel Cell faces stiff competition from existing automotive poweiplants and other Hybrid APUs. To be successful, the Fuel Cell will have to demonstrate real customer advantages such as fuel economy and emissions. The PEM technology' has an inherent advantage over other powerplants in both thermal efficiency and emission performance, and as such fits in very well with the future regulations that strive to clean up the environment. In addition, it will need to be cost competitive and provide acceptable performance. The majority of development activity on PEM Fuel Cells to date has concentrated primarily in the area of Stack refinement and optimization with improvements coming in higher power densities and higher specific power. To make the Fuel Cell compatible with an automotive environment the entire system will need to be analyzed, understood, and then engineered to work together in an efficient manner.

316 Concerns Regarding the Use of FSA in Shipping

Useful risk estimation data include incident statistics, equipment reliability, structural reliability, human reliability and fleet (exposure) data. The cost data are related to the estimation of investment costs, operating costs, inspection and maintenance costs and the cost for clean-up, pollution etc. In many cases, data are insufficient to do an appropriate estimation of risk.

Urban Nonpoint Source Pollution

Regulatory efforts, by enforcement of existing construction regulations, and through public education. Street litter, for example, may be reduced by passage and enforcement of anti-littering regulation, public education about the polluting effects of litter, installation of litter collection devices, or street sweeping or vacuuming. Transportation residues like oil, gas, and grease from cars, and particulates from deteriorating road surfaces can be reduced by selecting road surfaces less susceptible to deterioration, instituting automobile exhaust inspection programs, educating the public about the pollution control benefits of keeping automobiles tuned up and operating properly, or using clean-up technologies such as oil and grease separators and sedimentation basins.

73 Plastic injector in a jet mill

A pinned disc mill was being used for crushing a coarse plastic powder and as the product had a relatively low MIE (5-10 mJ) the entire plant was, for safety, constructed to withstand high pressures. By this means neither the personnel nor the plant itself would be in danger. However, within a year of the plant starting up, an ignition occurred which, as expected, caused no injury and left the plant intact. The interior was found to be burned and encrusted with smouldering product the fumes from which were poisonous and therefore a danger to the maintenance crew. As the cleaning up of the plant was very costly and time consuming the

164 Remediation Of Surface Waters

Remediation of surface waters involves some of the same issues as for groundwater. For instance, the first step in cleaning up a contaminated site is to determine whether there is a continuing source of contamination. This is sometimes not easy to do, especially in cases where sediments are contaminated. Unlike groundwater, surface waters usually are able to recover naturally on shorter time scales, particularly when there is a significant flow of water through the system. Because surface waters are usually (hydraulically) connected with other water bodies, and because there may be multiple uses for a particular water body of concern, remediation alternatives must be carefully thought out before any action is taken. It is normal to use water quality modeling to evaluate the effects of different remediation options when making management decisions. Models that attempt to simulate entire ecosystems also have been used. These models range in complexity, both in terms of spatial and...

Commissioning the Lube Oil System

The procedure with carbon steel piping reminds one of some ancient rite, with many people walking around the pipe beating it with anything imaginable. The temperature is cycled as often as necessary to obtain a clean system. Care must be taken during the heating cycle to keep from exceeding any temperature limits. The viscosity of the oil will be low during the hot cycle, and should not go below the minimum allowable viscosity for the pumps. It takes time for the system to clean up, and depending on the piping material, this could be days for stainless and weeks for carbon steel. There are stories about large carbon steel system flushing duration estimates that should have been quoted in months instead of weeks. Times as high as 12 weeks have not been very unusual.

High Speed Countercurrent Chromatography

Due to their various applications, the analysis of alkaloids is of great importance. The very different types of (ab)use of the alkaloids mean that the type of analyses also varies. Alkaloids must be analysed in a broad variety of matrices, such as plant material, tablets, drug seizures, urine and blood. Each requires different sample clean-up methods and chromato-graphic selectivities. Liquid chromatography is the most commonly used method since the instability and low volatility of alkaloids mean that gas chromato-graphy has a limited applicability. Because the extracts are often complex and 'dirty', thin-layer chromatography is useful in analysing alkaloid-containing plant extracts.

Instrumental Analysis of Alditol Acetate Derivatives

Sugar Linkage

High resolution chromatographic separations coupled with selective clean-up steps are important in improving the specificity of the detection of chemical markers (e.g. muramic acid as a marker for bacterial infection) in complex matrices. However, chromato-graphic separation is not sufficient to eliminate extraneous peaks when nonselective detectors are employed. The use of the mass spectrometer as a selective GC detector (i.e. GC-MS analysis in SIM), helps greatly in diminishing background noise by focusing only on ions that are present in the compound of interest. However, even when using SIM, it is not uncommon to find extraneous background peaks. The tandem mass spectrometer, as a GC detector, Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) and generation of product ion spectra both involve three discrete mass analysis steps. The first stage involves selection of a precursor ion. This instrumental clean-up removes other ions. The precursor ion is then fragmented by collision-induced...

Preparation of Alditol Acetate Derivatives of Sugars Present in Complex Matrices

Prederivatization clean-up (1 h, manual) 4. post-derivatization clean-up (30 min, manual). The final post-derivatization clean-up (taking 30 min) is performed manually but also uses the 21-sample manifold, alleviating the necessity for additional equipment. Samples are passed through a pair of connected Chem-Elut columns (Varian, Walnut Creek, CA), the first pre-treated with 2molL 1 acetic acid and the second with 14.8 molL1 ammonium hydroxide. The chloroform eluent is evaporated under N2, and samples reconstituted for analysis.

536 Waste management in practice

Most pollution incidents are avoidable and the costs for cleaning up a pollution incident can be very high. Careful planning of facilities and effective operational procedures can reduce the risk of a loss of containment and simple precautions can prevent such a loss becoming a pollution incident. This section covers the good practice and pollution prevention measures necessary to achieve compliance with legal requirements and minimise the likelihood of incidents. Waste management processes are fundamental aspects of good business management and should be integrated into systems set up to run established business

Water and Waste Treatment

If there is a second stage its water-rich waste stream is recycled to the first stage feed. The waste product from the first stage is water containing up to 0.1 oil by volume dispersed as ultrafine droplets. Before this water can be discharged, its oil content has to be reduced to comply with strict environmental standards both with respect to its oil content and the biological oxygen demand (BOD). Froth flotation has been used particularly in final clean-up units because of the small droplet size. DAF has been used as the bubbles coming out of solution following a reduction in pressure are thought to nucleate directly on the droplets. Unfortunately, the rise velocity of these air-droplet aggregates is so slow that extremely large cells are required. Their operation is in turn adversely affected by the pitching motions of floating rigs. Induced gas flotation (IGF) has also been used when the air is added to the feed stream at the throat of a Venturi nozzle. These have higher recovery...

Impact Attenuator Sizes

When considering maintenance costs, anticipate the average annual hit rate. If few impacts are I anticipated, lower cost devices such as inertial barriers might meet the need. Inertial barriers have the lowest initial cost and initial site preparation. However, maintenance will be costly and necessary after every hit. Labor and equipment are necessary to clean up the debris and install new containers (barrels). Also, inertial barriers must not be used where flying debris may be a danger to pedestrians.

Smallquantity Generators 40 Cfr 2615

The limits on generated quantities of hazardous waste are different for acute hazardous waste (P list). The limit is equal to the total of one kg of acute hazardous waste or a total of 100 kg of any residue or contaminated soil, waste, or other debris resulting from the clean-up of any spilled acute hazardous wastes.

What Cause Process To Wake Up In Unix

There are occasions when the kernel wants the process to wake up on receipt of a signal but not do a longjmp. The kernel invokes the sleep algorithm with a special priority parameter that suppresses execution of the longjmp and causes the sleep algorithm to return the value 1. This is more efficient than doing a setjmp immediately before the sleep call and then a longjmp to restore the context of the process as it was before entering the sleep state. The purpose is to allow the kernel to clean up local data structures. For example, a device driver may allocate private data structures and then go to sleep at an interruptible priority if it wakes up because of a signal, it should free the allocated data structures, then longjmp if necessary. The user has no control over whether a process does a longjmp that depends on the reason the process was sleeping and whether kernel data structures need modification before the process returns from the system call.

Sample Processing Considerations

Solid-phase extraction cartridges are available in a range of sizes containing from about 35 mg to 10 g of sorbent, with the 100 mg and 500 mg sorbent cartridges (or discs) being the most widely used for extraction and the larger cartridge sizes for sample clean up. As a rough guide, the sorbed sample capacity of a solid-phase extraction device is about 1-5 of the sorbent mass. The sample volume that can be processed depends primarily on the breakthrough volume of the analyte, the concentration of the analyte matrix, sample flow rate, and the sorbent mass. The sample volume is often selected to conform to the needs of the instrumental detection step, and as instrumental methods of determination have improved in sensitivity, sample volumes have decreased in size. Regulatory authorities often indicate action levels in concentration units, which can also be used to define an adequate sample volume for analysis.

Multidimensional and Multimodal Chromatography

Ment and sample clean-up on short pre-columns is finding increasing use in the automated determinations of drugs in biological fluids and crop protection agents in water by LC-LC. Figure 21 illustrates the separation of a mixture of deoxyribonucleosides and their 5'-monophosphate esters using LC-LC with an anion exchange column and a reversed-phase column connected in series by a microvolume valve interface. The neutral deoxyribonucleosides are switched as a single peak for separation on the reversed-phase column while the phosphate esters are resolved by the anion exchange column. The separation time remains acceptable since both separations are performed almost simultaneously. TLC-TLC is commonly called two-dimensional TLC and is a widely used qualitative method of analysis. It is very easily performed by placing a sample at the corner of the layer and developing the plate in the normal way, evaporating the solvent, turning the plate through a right angle and developing the plate a...

Sample Preparation

Complexity of the matrices usually considered. All matrices pose different problems depending on their complexity so many clean-up techniques have been proposed making use of different extraction procedures, i.e. liquid-liquid, solid-phase extraction (SPE), etc. and a variety of solvents (perchloric, tri-chloroacetic, and hydrochloric acids and or both polar and non-polar organic solvents).

Simplification of Multiresidue Methods

Official laboratories that investigate and analyse pesticide residues usually utilize the established multi-residue methods (MRM) of analysis. One of the most commonly used MRM for pesticide analysis in fruit and vegetables samples is the AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) method. It involves an aqueous acetone extraction and laborious clean-up employing LLP procedures using organic solvent of limited water capacity, to achieve the removal of the coextractives present in the sample extract and or solid-phase clean-up with silica or Florisil. Finally, analyte determination is performed by GC or HPLC with selective detectors. During the past two decades, research has gone in the direction of reduction of organic solvent toxicity, elimination of the partition step and elimination of the column clean-up. A rapid and efficient multi-residue extraction procedure has been reported using ethyl acetate and sodium sulfate, followed by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) on an...

Influence of Feed Characteristics

Oil-water ratio Over a wide range of oil concentrations clean-up and concentrator hydrocyclones are considered to act as a flow divider, i.e. su remains constant and Cu will rise in proportion to Cf if droplet size remains constant, however field results show this to give a pessimistic view as droplet sizes rise with oil content. This means that Cu may even remain constant as Cf rises. As Cf rises the split ratio may need to be raised also. For clean-up the value of F is often maintained at 2-3 , but a rational control strategy is discussed later. In concentrator operations when Cf rises to Free gas Until fairly recently most clean-up hydrocyclones were installed downstream from three-phase separators. This means that the free gas content of the hydrocyclone feed was a fairly minor constituent. As In off-shore fields the water in the oil-water mixtures may be quite corrosive, particularly if it is sour (containing H2S). This has necessitated the use of alloy steels in the fabrication...

The Hazard Ranking System And The National Priority List

The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, better known as Superfund, became law to provide for liability, compensation, cleanup and emergency response for hazardous substances released into the environment and the cleanup of inactive hazardous waste disposal sites. CERCLA was intended to give the EPA authority and funds to clean up abandoned waste sites and to respond to emergencies related to hazardous waste.

Myths on accident investigation

When I was an assistant works manager I had to approve occasional claims for clothes damaged by leaks of corrosive chemicals or occasional overtime for men who worked late cleaning up spillages. One day I realised that these were dangerous occurrences but I was not seeing incidents reports on all of them.

GCMS Method for Analysis of Alkaloids

Sample clean-up is required when impurities in the sample matrix interfere with analyte measurement. The interest in this technique led to the commercial introduction of small disposable cartridges packed with relatively large particles of various bonded silicas. The particle size allows the use of minimum pressure to force the sample and wash solutions through the column. Indeed, it is common practice to suck the solution through the packings rather than to use pressure.

163 Basis for Limits of Exposure

As we seek to clean up the environment by controlling emissions of waste products from industrial plants, cities, and farms, it is necessary to specify water or air concentrations of materials such as sulfur or carbon monoxide that are below the level of danger to living beings. Ideally, there would be zero contamination, but it is generally assumed that some releases are inevitable in an industrialized world. Again, limits based on knowledge of effects on living beings must be set.

1844 Post Treatment Equipment

In most cases, it is preferable to prevent pollutant formation rather than clean up emissions after they have already been formed. Some pollution control technologies (e.g., scrubbers) may generate another, although more benign, pollutant themselves (sludge in some cases) that must also be treated.


Complicated by the weather, particularly wind patterns that carry pollutants away from their sources and temperature inversions that tend to keep pollutants near ground level. The 1990 Clean Air Act established five classes of nonattainment areas for smog ranging from marginal (relatively easy to clean up quickly) to extreme (difficult and lengthy to clean up).

Protein Purification

All three methods require further clean-up of the eluted material to remove unwanted components. Of the three methods, probably the least favourable is method 2 since this may lead to metal ion contamination of the eluted protein and retention of activity may not be compatible with low pH. Method 1 also strips the medium of metal ions, although in this instance they will be complexed with the added chela-tor. Method 3 is probably the most gentle form of elution. Imidazole mimics the coordination of his-tidine residues in the protein and can lead to effective elution when used in the tens to hundreds of millimolar range (Figure 3 shows an example purification). For phosphoproteins immobilized on Fe3+ it is normal to use phosphate in the elution buffer and concentrations as low as 10 mm may be effective. The minimum concentration required should be determined on a case-by-case basis and cannot be simply predicted. Even for 6His-tagged proteins the minimum concentration of imidazole...

General Elution

Complete elution of all the protein from the column is fine if the adsorption has been specific, and only the desired component has been bound. But if unwanted proteins are bound in addition to the target component, then a more selective method is appropriate. The buffer conditions are adjusted so that the desired component is not quite eluted, but other proteins are, giving a preliminary clean-up. Then the conditions are adjusted again so that the desired component is just eluted, but other proteins remain on the

Analytical Sequence

The analysis of mycotoxins may be considered in terms of a sequence of four operations extraction, clean-up, quantification and confirmation. Some of the more commonly used procedures associated with these operations are illustrated in Table 2. The crude extract, obtained after filtration of the shaken or blended mixture, is cleaned-up in order to remove as much non-mycotoxin material as possible, since the presence of extraneous compounds can seriously diminish the efficiency of the analysis. Clean-up procedures include liquid-solid extraction (defatting), liquid-liquid partitioning, chemical adsorption and chromatographic methods. Clean-up Multifunctional clean-up column Solid-phase extraction (SPE) and immunosorbent columns are examples of recently introduced clean-up procedures that are now frequently used. SPE cartridges are available with a wide variety of polar, nonpolar and ion exchange bonded phases. A 'multifunctional clean-up column' (MFC), composed of lipophilic, dipolar...


Water (3 1 v v) as the extraction solvent followed by strong ion exchange (SAX) clean-up and pre-column derivatization with o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA). The mobile phase is sodium dihydrogen phosphate solution (buffered to pH 3.3) methanol and fluorescence detection is employed. Recent developments Typically, the fumonisins are determined by TLC, HPLC or GCMS, using ion exchange SPE clean-up and quantification, after derivatization of the primary amino group. HPLC is by far the most widely used quantification method. A worldwide survey of methods used for the analysis of the fumonisins was reported in 1996. Of the 32 laboratories included, 91 used HPLC. TLC and GC MS methods were each used by 3 of the laboratories. (ELISA was utilized by the remaining 3 .) HPLC methods that are broadly similar to the AOAC Official First Action method have also been developed using other clean-up procedures (e.g. C18 SPE and immunoaffinity columns) and mobile phases. The latter include mixtures of...


When the entire form has been filled with grout, excess material shall be removed and the exposed surfaces trowelled smooth. the trowel shall be wetted with a small amount of esc0weld 9615 clean-up Solvent. Care shall be taken to prevent blending the by grinding to a 1 4 inch chamfer, IX. CLEAN-UP 1. immediately after grouting is completed all tools and mixing equipment shall be cleaned using either water or Escoweld 9615 Clean-Up Solvent,

Sample cleanup

The principle of multidimensional chromatogra-phy for sample clean-up is to transfer an effluent cut containing the analytes from a primary to a secondary column, whereas the remaining effluent containing unwanted compounds is vented to waste. In particular, the online coupling of a primary column, for the pre-separation of the analytes, with the analytical column via a switching valve greatly facilitates the analysis, as shown in Table 1. This table compares sample preparation steps typically involved in liquid-liquid extraction, and solid-phase extraction on to disposable cartridges, with those required by the multidimensional approach. As can be deduced from this table, a multidimensional approach drastically reduces, or even eliminates, manual sample preparation steps, and the entire analysis can be fully automated. In addition, the total time required for analysis is greatly shortened and the selectivity that can be reached is comparable to (and The success of the clean-up...


Many materials react with pure oxygen, so great care is taken in the selection and clean-up of materials that come into contact with oxygen. Potential ignition sources must be minimized. All impurities that come into contact with oxygen, especially unsaturated hydrocarbons, must be reduced to safe levels. To avoid hydrocarbon build-up, generally a small purge stream is taken from the sumps where oxygen-rich liquids are being boiled. The combustion hazard increases as pure gaseous oxygen is compressed to higher pressures and therefore, special care should be taken in the compression and handling of high pressure oxygen gas.


Of the official methods are based upon analytical procedures that were developed many years ago, using a combination of silica gel column chromatogra-phy clean-up and normal phase silica gel TLC. Recent developments Reversed-phase HPLC, with post-column derivatization and fluorescence detection, is now widely used in the developed world for the analysis of the aflatoxins. Post-column iodination is performed within a heated reaction coil, where the column eluent is mixed with iodine-saturated water. Post-column bromination can be performed where bromide ion in the mobile phase is converted to bromine using a commercially available electrochemical cell. Sample clean-up is frequently performed using proprietary immunoaffinity or SPE columns. The AOAC Official Method 991.31, for example, utilizes the Aflatest immunoaffinity column in combination with reversed-phase C18 HPLC for the determination of the aflatoxins. A similar approach was reported in 1995 for the determination of aflatoxin...

6112Fuel Flexibility

The primary fuel used in a fuel cell is hydrogen, which can be obtained from natural gas, coal gas, methanol, landfill gas, and other fuels containing hydrocarbons. Increasing the fuel flexibility of fuel cells implies power generation that can be ensured even when a primary fuel source is unavailable. This will increase the initial market opportunities for fuel cells and enhance market penetration. Specific RD& D topics being addressed to increase the fuel flexibility of fuel cells include (1) non-traditional fuel storage (H2), (2) transportation fuel reforming, (3) renewable fuels processing (reforming, gasifying, clean-up), (4) biogas operation, and (5) tolerance to gas supply variation.


Much of LC-GC serves for the routine analysis of a single or a small group of trace components, i.e. for automated clean-up at high separation efficiency. The LC detector installed between the LC and the GC enables careful optimization of the LC pre-separation and accurate cuts of the window transferred to the GC. Optional 'peak detection' automatically compensates for shifts in LC retention times by the use of the up- and or down-slope of a peak determined by the LC detector.

Liquid Effluents

LLRW is produced from the clean-up of drainings and cooling water at nuclear power plants, manufacturing sites, and R& D laboratories where radioactive materials are handled. These low-activity wastes are usually treated to remove most radionuclides, then discharged to the environment. Low-activity wastes can be collected and mixed for a more uniform effluent or segregated to utilize specific treatments for the individual components. If the first approach is utilized, the usual wastewater treatments of flocculation, precipitation, absorption, filtration, and ion exchange can be adapted to radioactive wastes (Table 11.26.11). Provisions must be made for water discharging and for drying, compacting, and disposing of the solids produced. Presently, solids are sent to a LLRW disposal site. Radium removal, covered in the section on mining and milling, is a good example of a specific treatment process.

Sample Enrichment

Sample enrichment is based on analyte retention in a pre-column when a large volume of sample is flushed through it. This column is then connected to the main column for separation of the analytes. An essential condition for this set-up is that the sampling solvent is a weak solvent with respect to the retention mechanism of the analytes in the first enrichment column. For example, since water is a noneluting solvent in reversed-phase LC, large volumes of aqueous samples can be passed through columns packed with hydrophobic chemically bonded phases for enrichment of rather apolar analytes. As for the sample clean-up, greater accuracy and precision can be expected in analyte enrichment by multidimensional LC compared with classical enrichment procedures, which are more time-consuming and prone to errors. According to the basic principles indicated in the above section, the optimization of the chromato-graphic conditions should include careful selection of the pre-column (packing and...


Unlike solid-liquid units, clean-up or concentrator hydrocyclones have hitherto almost always been installed in pressure vessels, as shown schematically in Figure 2. This allows easy fabrication of individual units (sometimes called liners) from relatively thin walled material and reduces the number of connections to be made. Several assemblies complete with instrumentation and controls are built into a skid. Some larger units have serious vibration at very high flows so that a mid-length damper is built in. Apart from modularity and improved separation, clean-up hydrocyclones have other advantages over the equipment formerly used such as induced gas


The task domains for which collections of simple autonomous robots seem most appropriate are those that occur in areas that are inaccessible or hazardous to humans, and that are likely to benefit from having a number of small, light, expendable, and cheap robots. These include surveillance, monitoring, de-mining (detecting and removing mines), toxic waste disposal, exploration, and search. However, in the current state of research, such tasks are usually not actually carried out, but rather analogous tasks, or tasks that involve components of these, are investigated. Foraging, for instance, involves many subcomponents of the task associated with toxic waste clean up, while

Operator Control

For water clean-up units the PDR set-point is usually in the range 2-3 but for concentrators, with their larger overflows, values below 1.5 may be set. A simplified control layout is shown on Figure 4. The effectiveness of the control is restricted to some extent by the relative sizes of the underflow and overflow exit ports.

Simple Methods

Basic laboratory environments require simple, robust, low-cost methods that can afford reliable results in the hands of semiskilled operators. Methods that have been developed with such an application in mind include minicolumn and immunodiagnostic procedures. The minicolumn approach utilizes small glass columns packed either with selected chromato-graphic adsorbents or with other inorganic adsorbing materials. Minicolumns are used either to clean up the crude extract before quantification or the my-cotoxin under test is adsorbed onto the column, as a band, which is normally visually determined under ultraviolet (UV) light. Immunodiagnostic procedures take the form either of immunoaffinity columns or of solid-phase ELISA methods. ImmunoafRn-ity columns are used to effect the sample cleanup before the mycotoxin is quantified, either by adsorption onto a Florisil 'tip' or by elution into a simple fluorimeter.

161 Introduction

As awareness of environmental problems has evolved over the years, there has been an increasing focus not only on reducing ongoing sources of pollution but also on remediation of sites that are already contaminated. A clear example of this is with the so-called Superfund program set up in the United States during the 1980s to clean up large hazardous waste sites causing serious contamination of groundwater resources. Another example is with efforts in the Great Lakes basin of North America to reverse the trend of eutrophica-tion that had been growing steadily in the middle part of the last century. Reduction of nutrient loadings such as phosphorus and nitrogen have reduced drastically the productivity in the lakes, and now the concern is with cleaning residual sites of contamination, in large part associated with contaminated sediments.

000092 000012 137

The gas is discharged from the gas compressor and into the GPU where moisture and VOC's including sulfides and halogenated compounds are removed. The GPU has dual clean up trains so when one train is in service cleaning the gas the other is being regenerated with a portion of the cleaned gas. The regeneration gas, in the quantity of 25 scfm, is combusted in an enclosed flare. The cleanup train consists of an alumina plus mole sieve dryer vessel which removes the moisture from the gas, a carbon vessel which absorbs hydrocarbons and VOC's and a refrigeration unit and heat exchanger which are used to cool the gas to 34 F prior to entering the clean up train. The gas leaves the GPU consisting of methane, carbon dioxide, and trace amounts of nitrogen and oxygen. The dew point of the gas is -20 F. The specific composition of the Groton landfill gas leaving the GPU is as follows

Screen Panels

Changes in drilling fluids, environmental constraints, and a better understanding of solids liquid separation have modified the role of the shale shaker. Generally, the more solids removed at the flow line, the higher the effectiveness of downstream equipment. The results include reserve pits that can be smaller (or eliminated altogether), lower clean-up costs, and increased drilling efficiency.

45 Risk Management

Many activities involve external 'costs' which are imposed on other parties. These externalities include danger and environmental pollution. A market solution is to require the party responsible to pay these costs. In the case of pollution, this is the principle of 'polluter pays'. Another market approach is the use of insurance to pool risks. However, there are a number of difficulties in these approaches. The party responsible may not be readily identifiable and may have limited resources. This is illustrated by the difficulties in enforcing clean-up of hazardous waste sites. The RSSG Report identifies the following four modes of operation available in public risk management (1) information, (2) resources, (3) legislation, and (4) direct action. Information is of particular importance in relation to emergency warnings of impending natural hazards, although the problem of liability for false alarms is a severe one. Where resources are required and unavailable elsewhere the state may...

Edible oil

Methods have been developed for the analysis of edible oils or fatty foods in order to achieve faster analysis (circumventing manual clean-up) and analyses of trace components that are difficult to analyse otherwise. They include the analysis of sterols (after transesterification of the oil), the minor components in the oil (after silylation), sterol dehydration products, volatile terpenes in cold-pressed oils, contamination by mineral oil or polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and organophosphorus insecticides.


The primary difference between the pumps for nuclear service and conventional steam generation is the stringent requirements for reliability and safety. The continuous functioning of nuclear pumps is critical to the safe operation of the plant. In addition, many of these units maintain the responsibility of ensuring safe shutdown of the facility during emergency conditions. Because the release of radioactive fluids could result in potential personnel and environmental hazards along with associated costly clean-up, nuclear pumps must be self-contained. The rules and regulatory standards for nuclear pumps are dedicated to the promotion of public safety through reliable operation. Pump manufacturers must be fully knowledgeable of these standards and certified by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) (or an equivalent authority outside the United States) before they can offer pumps for the nuclear market.


In general, the downhole turbine motor is composed of two sections (1) the turbine motor section and (2) the thrust-bearing and radial support bearing. These sections are shown in Figure 4-191. Sometimes a special section is used at the top of the motor to provide a filter to clean up the drilling mud flow before it enters the motor, or to provide a by-pass valve.

Part Size and Shape

Forging preforms have a shape related to the final forging shape depending on whether it is a closed-die or open-die forging. The preform must have sufficient total mass to fill the closed-die cavity or finish the open-die part with sufficient excess stock to clean up in machining. Sintering following CIP is necessary to ensure metal flow without premature fracture. The advantage of a forging preform is elimination of one or more intermediate forging steps, particularly in closed-die applications. Forging acts to increase the density of the preform, refine the sintered grain structure, and produce deformation texture allowing production of a part with mechanical properties dependent primarily on chemistry and heat treatment. Both forging preforms and near-net-shape parts produced by CIP facilitate production of prototype parts with reduced initial tooling costs.

51 Ethics ETH

Joshua works in the environmental division of the ABC Asbestos Testing Company. His position is senior laboratory analyst. He is in charge of analyzing transmission electron microscope (TEM) airborne asbestos samples. In the past few weeks a client has been sending him samples that have been failing, or coming up positive, for asbestos. When the results of the samples get back to the client, that client has to clean up the site again and take new samples. He then has to send the new samples back to the lab for reanalysis. The new samples have been coming to the lab at approximately 10 30 p.m. for immediate turnaround Joshua is paged by the client to return at night to the lab and analyze the new samples. It takes a minimum of 3 h to prepare and read the TEM samples, so Joshua goes home at around one in the morning.

333 Control measures

Both have an important role in the protection of the health of people at work. Laid down procedures are necessary for preventing the spread of contamination, for example the immediate clean-up of spillages, safe disposal of waste and the regular cleaning of work stations.

Xin Xo

Stripping has been successfully and economically employed for removal of halogenated organics from water and wastes with dispersion of the effluent gas to the atmosphere. However, recent EPA regulations have curtailed this practice. Now removal of these toxic organics from the gas stream is also required. Systems employing activated carbon (prepared for use with gas streams) are employed as well as systems to oxidize the organics in the gas stream. However, the cost of cleaning up the gas stream often exceeds the cost of stripping these organics from the water.

Filtration Devices

The filtration application dictates the type of device to be used. Industrial applications demand a high surface area, ease of cleaning and low clogging. For enhanced yield and capacity, open-channel tangential flow systems, which require two pumps for recirculation and permeation, are available from several manufacturers. Different designs are used to overcome gel formation and to continuously sweep away the contamination in the filtration process. The details of these systems are beyond the scope of this article.


The official TLC method for zearalenone involves extraction with chloroform water, clean-up by silica gel column chromatography and liquid partitioning followed by TLC using either ethanol chloro-form or acetic acid benzene. Zearalenone fluoresces greenish-blue under 254 nm UV light and blue under 365 nm UV light after treatment with aluminium chloride. Recent developments A variety of HPLC methods have been developed for the analysis of zearalenone in corn together with methods for milk, blood, urine and animal tissue. Clean-up procedures include liquid partitioning and the use of silica gel cartridges. The mobile phases used for reversed-phase HPLC include Method Date Commodity Extraction Development Stationaryphase Clean-upmethod Detectionlimit, Mobile phase Stationary phase Clean-up method

25 Superfund SUP

Note that a total of 10 steps have been identified as steps in the clean-up of a hazardous waste site. The first 5 deal with the steps leading up to placement on the NPL. The second 5 refer to actions taken following placement on the NPL. These 5 steps are listed as follows


An HPLC method (Method 1, Table 7) for the determination of ochratoxin A in roast and ground coffee uses a combination of silica gel SPE and immunoaffinity clean-up in order to ensure a good recovery (87 ) of toxin. (Very low recoveries were obtained when immunoaffinity clean-up alone was used.) Fluoresence detection with excitation and emission wavelengths of 333 and 470 nm Clean-up method Detection limit, LOD (ig kg-1) Additional information HPLC quantification has also been used to determine the ochratoxin A content of milk (Method 2, Table 7). The emulsion produced during the chloroform methanol extraction was broken by refrigerated centrifugation. After clean-up, the purified extract was dissolved in methanol, by ultrasonic treatment, before application to the HPLC column. The emission and excitation wavelengths of the fluorescence detector were set at 330 and 460 nm. The presence of ochratoxin A, in the range 0.01 to 0.03 gL_1, was confirmed by ELISA. An HPTLC method (Method 3,...

Sample flow

Liquid feeding can be achieved through a variety of mechanisms. In the simplest configuration, a container of fluid is placed at a high elevation and allowed to flow into the instrument. In most cases, a source of fluid at a positive pressure fluid is available to introduce the liquid at an appropriate rate and in a correct volume. Reservoir systems also afford the opportunity to select a variety of liquid and surfactants to be fed into the instrument. This versatility increases the speed of sample preparation, sample analysis, and sample clean up.


Official methods The two official AOAC methods for the determination of deoxynivalenol in wheat both date from 1986 these are outlined in Table 9. The TLC procedure (Method 986.17) involves extraction with acetonitrile water followed by clean-up using a small column packed with a mixture of charcoal, alumina and Celite. The deoxynivalenol is observed as a blue fluorescent spot, under UV light, on the heated, aluminium chloride-treated plate. When subjected to a collaborative study the reported average recoveries were between 78 and 96 , with intra-and interlaboratory precisions (CV ) of 30-64 and 33 -87 respectively. The GC method includes extraction with water chloroform methanol, a silica gel column clean-up (under centrifugation) and derivatization with hep-tafluorobutyric acid anhydride (HFBAA). Chromatography is performed on a 3 OV-101 column (using argon methane as the carrier gas) with a 63Ni electron capture detector. A collaborative study of this procedure afforded an average...

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