Rolls-royce Wr-21

The only advanced-cycle marine gas turbine currently on the market, the WR-21 was developed by Northrop Grumman in the USA and Rolls-Royce during the 1990s with funding from the US Navy, UK Royal Navy and French Navy. It is the first aero-derived gas turbine to incorporate compressor intercooling and exhaust heat recuperation (Figure 31.20) to foster a low specific fuel consumption across the

25% Power increase Exhaust

25% Power increase Exhaust

Rolls Royce Fuel Gas Compressors
Figure 31.20 Intercooled recuperator (ICR) system applied to the Rolls-Royce WR-21 gas turbine

operating range: a fuel burn reduction up to 30 per cent over simple-cycle turbines is reported.

Rated at 25 000 kW, the WR-21 is based on the successful RollsRoyce aero RB211 and Trent engines, with modifications to marinize the components and effectively integrate the heat exchangers and variable geometry. The first seagoing installations (featuring twin sets) will enter service from 2007 in the UK Royal Navy's new Type 45 D class destroyers but commercial propulsion opportunities, particularly cruise ships, are also targeted. The fuel consumption characteristics—approximately 205 g/kWh from full power down to around 30 per cent power—enable the WR-21 to fulfil the role of both cruise and boost engines.

Compared with simple-cycle turbines, the benefits cited for the WR-21 include an improvement in fuel efficiency over the entire operating range (with a radical improvement at low power), easier maintenance through enhanced modularization, and the facility to retrofit ultra low emission reduction systems. The intercooled recuperated (ICR) propulsion system package was designed to occupy the same footprint as existing power plant, Figure 31.21.

Combustor

Combustor

Figure 31.21 Layout of WR-21 gas turbine package

A significant fuel saving over simple-cycle turbines is achieved by using heat exchangers to improve the part-load cycle efficiency. Recuperation alone improves the thermal efficiency of low pressure ratio cycles where the exhaust temperature of the turbine is significantly higher than that of the air leaving the compressor. Heat is transferred to the compressed air before it enters the combustion system, reducing the amount of fuel required to attain the cycle turbine entry temperature.

The recuperator thus pre-heats the combustion air by recovering waste energy from the exhaust, improving cycle efficiency and reducing fuel consumption. Low power efficiency is improved still further by power turbine variable area nozzles; these maintain a constant power turbine entry temperature, which in turn maintains recuperator gas side entry conditions and improves recuperator effectiveness as power reduces.

The intercooler cools air entering the high pressure compressor, reducing the work required to compress the air; the intercooler also reduces the HP compressor discharge temperature, which increases the effectiveness of the recuperator.

Air enters the compressors via a composite radial intake designed to maintain uniform circumferential velocity at entry to the gas generator. The IP compressor (so called because it reflects commonality with the parent three-spool turbofan aero engine) includes six stages of compression; stages two to six are in common with the RB211 engine, while the first stage is modified to suit the increased flow requirements of the ICR cycle.

The intercase between the compressors transmits structural load from the engine through two support legs to the sub-base; it also houses the five intercooler segments in an outer casing and the internal gearbox within an inner casing. Both casings combine to form the air flow path between compression stages. Incorporating an intercooler between the compression stages on a twin-spool cycle increases the specific power of the engine. The amount of work needed to drive the compressor is reduced, thereby increasing the net power available. Bypass valves on the intercooler are modulated depending on the pressure and relative humidity of the air so that condensation formation can be avoided.

Cycle thermal efficiency is approximately the same as that of a simple-cycle engine, as additional fuel is required to offset the drop in compressor exit temperature. Combining an intercooler with a recuperator, however, is attractive for higher pressure ratio engines, leading to high specific power outputs and good thermal efficiency.

The HP compressor also has six compression stages and is aerodynamically identical to its aero origin. Compression is split 30:70 between IP and HP compressors, and both stages incorporate additional boroscope holes to allow greater flexibility for inspection.

The Marine Spey SM1C combustor was adopted as the basis for the WR-21 combustor design as a proven system in use worldwide. Although otherwise conventional in its construction, the combustor features a Reflex Airspray Burner method of fuel injection developed specifically for the marine versions of the Spey. This achieves a controlled mixing of fuel and air, allowing a high burner exit air-fuel ratio (AFR) to be maintained with adequate flame stability. Based on previous experience, high (lean) AFR was considered an important factor in reducing visible smoke when burning diesel fuel.

Preservation of the proven aero RB211 HP and IP spool lengths, which are characterized as short, rigid high integrity structures, was a principal design objective. The requirement to remove compressor delivery air and return recuperated air within the length constraint dictated that the annular RB211 combustor be replaced by a radially-orientated turbo-annular system.

The manifold designs underwent extensive analysis and testing to confirm structural integrity, aerodynamic flow distributions, ease of manufacture and maintainability. The inner casing carries the structural load from the HP compressor outer casing to the turbine casing; the component is designed so that it provides the minimum of blockage for HP compressor exit air entering the combustion manifold and also transfers HP compressor stage 4 air to the power turbine for sealing and cooling. In-situ removal of the combustor and burner is a key element of the maintainability strategy. The design addresses ease of life monitoring and timely repair or replacement of hardware (without engine removal) in the event of premature failure.

The HP nozzle guide vanes and rotor blade airfoils maintain commonality with the RB211-524 parent engine, with slight modifications to provide a smooth gas path from the radically-swept discharge nozzles. The disc seals and bearing arrangements are essentially unchanged from their aero origins. The IP nozzle guide vane is skewed relative to the aero RB211-535 vane and incorporates the addition of a cast boss to facilitate a boroscope inspection hole. The blade is uncooled and manufactured from a single nimonic to extend creep life.

Consistent with the pedigree of the gas generator, the power turbine also originates from an aero parent, the Trent. Stages two-through-five incorporate three-dimensional orthogonal blade geometry to maximize turbine efficiency, but the main difference is the incorporation of the Variable Area Nozzles (VAN) which control flow area. The VANs are hydraulically actuated via a single geared ring designed to maintain VAN-to-VAN throat areas within a specified tolerance. The VAN is fully open at full power and closes at part power; this has the effect of retaining the efficiency benefits across the whole power range by maintaining the high exhaust temperature at part powers. The recuperator can thus be exploited fully to give the characteristic flat fuel consumption curve for the WR-21 (Figure 31.22).

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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