## Practical Cycles

While the theoretical cycle facilitates simple calculation, it does not exactly represent the true state of affairs. This is because:

1. The manner in which, and the rate at which, heat is added to the compressed air (the heat release rate) is a complex function of the hydraulics of the fuel injection equipment and the characteristic of its operating mechanism; of the way the spray is atomized and distributed in the combustion space; of the air movement at and after top dead centre (TDC); and to a degree also of the qualities of the fuel.

2. The compression and expansion strokes are not truly adiabatic. Heat is lost to the cylinder walls to an extent which is influenced by the coolant temperature and by the design of the heat paths to the coolant.

3. The exhaust and suction strokes on a four-stroke engine (and the appropriate phases of a two-stroke cycle) do create pressure differences which the crankshaft feels as 'pumping work'.

It is the designer's objective to minimize all these losses without prejudicing first cost or reliability, and also to minimise the cycle loss: that is, the heat rejected to exhaust. It is beyond the scope of this book to derive the formulae used in the theoretical cycle, and in practice designers have at their disposal sophisticated computer techniques which are capable of representing the actual events in the cylinder with a high degree of accuracy. But broadly speaking, the cycle efficiency is a function of the compression ratio (or more correctly the effective expansion ratio of the gas/air mixture after combustion).

The theoretical cycle (Figure 1.1) may be compared with a typical actual diesel indicator diagram such as that shown in Figure 1.2. Note that in higher speed engines combustion events are often represented on a crank angle, rather than a stroke basis, in order to achieve better accuracy in portraying events at the top dead centre (TDC), as in Figure 1.3. The actual indicator diagram is derived from it by transposition. This form of diagram is useful too when setting injection timing. If electronic indicators are used it is possible to choose either form of diagram.

An approximation to a crank angle based diagram can be made with mechanical indicators by disconnecting the phasing and taking a card quickly, pulling it by hand: this is termed a 'draw card'.

Figure 1.2 Typical indicator diagram (stroke based)

Figure 1.2 Typical indicator diagram (stroke based)

Crank angle

Figure 1.3 Typical indicator diagram (crank angle based)

Crank angle

Figure 1.3 Typical indicator diagram (crank angle based)

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