IM0-50 per cent*

* Prepared for Direct Water Injection

* Prepared for Direct Water Injection

Several innovative features were introduced by Wârtsilâ Diesel with the launch of the W46 engine in 1988 which has since found favour in diverse passenger and cargo ship propulsion sectors (Figures 27.20

Figure 27.19 Integrated cooling water and lubrication oil systems of W38B engine

and 27.21). The designer's prime development goal in creating a large bore medium speed trunk piston engine to compete with low speed crosshead machinery was the highest reliability. A significant

Figure 27.20 Six-cylinder version of the Wdrtsild 46 engine
Figure 27.21 Cross-section of Wartsila 46 engine

contribution was sought from thick-pad bearing technology, exploiting large bearings with thick oil films, and pressure-lubricated piston skirts.

During its first four years of production the 460 mm bore/580 mm stroke design was offered with an output of 905 kW/cylinder at 450/ 500/514 rev/min as the Wartsila 46A. Experience with pilot installations encouraged the release in 1992 of a B-version with an output of 975 kW/cylinder at 500/514 rev/min. The C-output version followed in autumn 1995, yielding 1050 kW/cylinder at 500/514 rev/min with reduced thermal load and lower emissions thanks to advances in turbocharging and fuel injection systems and the adoption of low NOx combustion principles.

The three ratings allow the 46 series to cover a power band from 5430 kW to 18 900 kW with six, eight and nine in-line and V12-, 16-and 18-cylinder models. The C-output versions operate with a mean effective pressure up to 26.1 bar and the engine is designed for a maximum combustion pressure of 210 bar.

A nodular cast iron engine block (Figure 27.22) is configured to achieve a rigid and durable construction for flexible mounting (the W46 engine was perhaps the first of its size designed for elastic and super-elastic mounting, Figure 27.23). The main bearings are of the underslung type with hydraulically tightened bolts; side bolts add further rigidity to the main bearing housing. In-line cylinder engines are equipped with an integrated air receiver fostering rigidity, simplicity and cleanliness. A welded block of steel castings and plates is offered as an alternative.

A rigid box-like cylinder head design aims for even circumferential contact pressure between the head and cylinder liner, with four fixing bolts simplifying maintenance procedures. No valve cages are used, improving reliability and increasing the scope to optimize exhaust port flow characteristics. Water-cooled exhaust valve seat rings are specified. Both inlet and exhaust valves receive a forced rotation from Rotocaps during every opening cycle, fostering an even temperature distribution and wear of the valves, and keeping the sealing surface free from deposits. Good heat conduction results.

Cylinder liner deformations are normally caused by cylinder head clamping and thermal and mechanical loads. A special liner design with a high collar-to-stroke ratio for the W46 engine minimizes deformation, the round liner bore in combination with efficient lubrication enhancing conditions for the piston rings and reducing wear. The liner material is a special grey cast iron alloy developed for wear resistance and high strength. An anti-polishing ring in the upper part of the liner prevents the bore polishing that leads to local liner wear and increased lubricating oil consumption. The simple yet highly

effective device was introduced as standard on later engines and retrofitted to existing installations.

A composite low friction piston with a nodular cast iron skirt and steel crown incorporates a special cooling gallery configuration to secure efficient cooling and high rigidity for the piston top. It is designed to handle combustion pressures beyond 200 bar. A long lifetime is sought from hardened top ring grooves. The three-ring set includes a top ring with a special wear-resistant coating; all the rings are dimensioned and profiled for maximum sealing and pressure balance. Low friction is addressed by a skirt lubrication system delivering a well-distributed clean oil film that eliminates the risk of piston ring scuffing and reduces the wear rate, and fostering cleaner rings and grooves free from corrosive combustion products. Noise and wear are reduced by hydraulically damped tilting movements provided by an oil pad between liner and piston.

Figure 27.23 Flexible mounting system for Wdrtsild 46 engine

Hard skirt contact against the liner experienced with the first seagoing W46 engine installation was solved by introducing a piston with increased compression height, a slightly increased skirt length and an optimized skirt form.

A three-piece marine design connecting rod was designed for distribution of the combustion forces over a maximum bearing area with relative movements between mating surfaces minimized. Piston overhaul is facilitated without touching the big end bearing, and the bearing can be inspected without removing the piston. The three-piece design also reduces the piston overhauling height.

The one-piece forged crankshaft is designed to accept a high combustion pressure while maintaining a conservative bearing load; rigidity is underwritten by a moderate bore/stroke ratio and large pin and journal diameters. Counterweights fitted on every crankweb provide 95 per cent balancing. Reliability is sought from the thick-pad bearing design and bearing loads reduced by increasing crankshaft journal and pin diameters as well as length. Low bearing loads allow for softer bearing materials with greater conformability and adaptability, underwriting a virtually seizure-free bearing, according to Wartsila. A

thick corrosion-resistant overlay of tin-antimony is used in the big end bearings.

The key elements of Wartsila's thick-pad bearing technology are: ample oil film thicknesses achieved by proper overall dimensioning; corrosion-resistant bearing materials with excellent imbeddability properties; radially rigid bearing assemblies during both mass and gas force loading conditions; conformable bearing materials and axially conformable housings, which minimise edge pressure; and oil grooves and oil holes located where no harm can be caused to the oil film.

The camshaft is built of single-cylinder sections with integrated cams. The shaft sections are connected through separate bearing journals which make it possible to remove the sections sideways from the camshaft compartment. The valve follower is of the roller tappet type, the roller profile being slightly convex for good load distribution. The valve mechanism includes rocker arms working on yokes guided by pins.

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