D

Figure 28.28 General Motors EMD 710G two-stroke medium speed engine with overhead camshafts and unit injectors

Figure 28.29 Cross-section throiÁgh Bolnes VDNL 150/600 two-stroke engine

an output band from 400 kW to 2800 kW. The crosshead took the form of a lower piston/scavenge pump, with uniflow scavenging arranged via a single valve in the head. Air is drawn in by the turbocharger, passes through a first-stage air cooler to the scavenge pump and then fed to the cylinder for the compression stroke via a second-stage air cooler.

Bolnes cited the following merits of the design:

• Very low lubricating oil consumption due to the complete separation of combustion space and crankcase.

• Unique air control due to the design of the 260 mm bore crosshead scavenge pump which was claimed to secure completely smokeless combustion under all load conditions.

• High performance at low speed (for example, 110 per cent torque at 70 per cent rev/min).

• Separate lubrication systems promoting good heavy fuel-burning operation.

• Simple maintenance.

Bolnes engines had a faithful following in fishing, dredger, coaster and survey vessel propulsion sectors. The design was also valued as a test engine in fuel and lubricating oil research laboratories.

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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