Caterpillar

A wide programme of high speed engines from the US designer Caterpillar embraces models with bore sizes ranging from 105 mm to 170 mm. The largest and most relevant to this review is the 170 mm bore/190 mm stroke 3500 series which is produced in V8-, V12- and V16-cylinder versions with standard and higher B-ratings to offer outputs up to around 2200 kW. The engines, with minimum/maximum running speeds of 1200/1925 rev/min, are suitable for propelling workboats, fishing vessels, fast commercial craft and patrol boats. Genset applications can be covered with ratings from 1000 kVA to 2281 kVA.

The series B engines (Figure 30.3) benefited from a number of mechanical refinements introduced to take full advantage of the combustion efficiency improvement delivered by an electronic control system. Electronically controlled unit fuel injectors combine high injection pressures with an advanced injector design to improve atomization and timing. Outputs were raised by 17 to 30 per cent above earlier 3500 series models.

Figure 30.3 Caterpillar 3512B engine with electronic control system

A special high performance variant of the V16-cylinder 3500 series model was introduced to target niche markets, the refinements seeking increased power, enhanced reliability and lower fuel and lubricating oil consumptions without undermining durability. This Phase II high performance version of the 3516 has an upper rating of 2237 kW at 1925 rev/min. It was released for fast passenger vessels with low-load factors with a standard maximum continuous rating of 1939 kW at 1835 rev/min and a 'two hours out of 12' rating of 2088 kW at 1880 rev/min. Optional higher ratings up to 2205 kW at 1915 rev/min can be specified for cooler climate deployment, with revised turbocharger, fuel injector and timing specifications.

Key contributions to higher performance came from high efficiency ABB turbochargers, a seawater aftercooler to supply colder air to the combustion chambers, larger and more aggressive camshafts, and a new deep crater piston design. The fuel is delivered through strengthened unit injectors designed and manufactured by Caterpillar to secure injection pressures of 1380 bar.

An optimum air-fuel mixture which can be burned extremely efficiently is fostered by the combination of a denser air intake and the high injection pressure. The reported result is a specific fuel consumption range at full load of 198-206 g/kWh with all fuel, oil and water pumps driven by the engine. Modifications to the steel crown/aluminium skirt pistons and rings lowered lubricating oil consumption to 0.55 g/kWh.

A particularly desirable feature for fast ferry propulsion is underwritten by the high efficiency combustion and low crevice volume pistons which help to eliminate visible exhaust smoke at all steady points along the propeller demand curve. The rear gears were widened and hardened to serve the higher pressure unit injectors. New gas-tight exhaust manifolds with bellow expansion joints and stainless steel O-rings improved engineroom air quality by eliminating exhaust gas leaks.

A longer-stroke variant of the Cat 3500 series B engine was introduced after marine field tests undertaken from early 1998, these 3512B and 3516B models offering as much as 13 per cent higher powers than their standard counterparts, with respective maximum commercial ratings of 1380 kW and 1864 kW at 1600 rev/min. Seven per cent improvements in power-to-weight ratio and fuel economy were reported, along with lower emission levels than the standard engines. The higher output was achieved by enlarging the cylinder displacement (increasing the stroke by 25 mm) and without raising cylinder pressure or undermining bearing life or the durability of other key components.

A new single-piece forged crankshaft has more mass and is made from a stronger steel alloy than before to handle the higher loads. The connecting rods are longer and feature stronger shaft geometry; and a more robust rod pin end enhances the durability required for the increased piston speeds and higher inertia loads. The pistons are of the same two-piece design proven in standard Cat 3500 series B engines, a steel crown and aluminium skirt securing high strength and reduced weight. The engine footprint of these more powerful variants remained unchanged; only the dimensions of the higher capacity aftercooler and turbochargers were increased.

All Caterpillar 3500 series-B engines are controlled by a microprocessor-based electronic control module (ECM). Information is collected from engine sensors by the ECM which then analyses the data and adjusts injection timing and duration to optimize fuel efficiency and reduce noxious exhaust emissions. Electronic control also supports onboard and remote monitoring capabilities, the ECM reporting all information through a two-wire Cat Data Link to the instrument panel. The panel records and displays faults as well as operating conditions. An optional Customer Communications Module translates engine data to standard ASCII code for transmission to a PC or via satellite to remote locations.

Caterpillar's Engine Vision System (EVS) is compatible with the high performance 3500 series-B engines and the company's other electronically controlled engines. The EVS displays engine and transmission data, vessel speed, trip data, historical data, maintenance intervals, diagnostics and trouble-shooting information. Up to three engines can be monitored simultaneously, the system transferring between the vision display and individual ECMs via the two-wire data link.

An upgrade announced in 2002 introduced the 3500B series II engines with enhancements to their electronic control, monitoring, display and cooling systems as well as new derating and operating speed options designed for specific applications. New electronics included the latest Caterpillar ADEM III control system, allowing more engine parameters to be controlled and monitored, with more accuracy and fault-reporting capability. A new 'programmable droop' capability allows precise governor control for load-sharing applications. A combined cooling system, rather than two separate circuits, became an option. A higher maximum continuous rating of 2000 kW from the 3516B series II engine was offered to yield more power and bollard pull capacity for larger harbour tugs; the higher rating also addressed some types of ferries and offshore service vessels.

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