Electric Power Distribution Systems

Lawrence A. Schienbein and Jeffrey E. Dagle

CONTENTS

11.1 Transmission and Distribution System Characteristics

11.1.1 Physical Characteristics

11.1.2 Load Characteristics

11.1.3 System Protection

11.2 Operational Concerns

11.2.1 Planning Considerations

11.2.2 Real-Time Operations

11.3 Distribution System Economics 11.3.1 Ancillary Services

11.4 Distributed Resource Interconnection Considerations

11.4.1 Introduction

11.4.2 Distributed Generation and Distribution System Control and Protection

11.4.2.1 Parallel and Grid-Independent Operation

11.4.2.2 Discussion of Control and Protection

11.4.2.3 Utility Protection and Control Guidelines and Requirements

11.4.3 Islanded Operation

11.4.4 Power Quality

11.4.5 Operational Concerns

11.4.6 Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) Standards Coordinating Committee 21

References

This chapter provides a basic introduction to electric power distribution systems. When considering the application of DG, it is important to consider issues that apply to the environment in which these systems are deployed. An overview of key issues that should be considered is provided in this context. While this section is not intended to provide details of specific interconnection standards that may apply to the interconnection of distributed resources with the electric power system, it is intended to provide insight into the technical basis behind those standards. A brief introduction of the electric power grid is followed by a discussion of physical and operational characteristics of typical electric power transmission and distribution systems. Economic and distributed resource interconnection considerations are discussed in later sections.

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