## AP rd N A P r d e N

p e tells us, in effect, the average of a quantity that changes exponentially at a rate re while being discounted at a rate rd, over a lifetime of N years. It is plotted in Figure 8.4 for a wide range of the parameters.

levelizing factor 1.5 .

levelizing factor 1.5 .

N=5

—H

----

25 30

25 30

levelizing factor 1.5 :

levelizing factor 1.5 :

 N=10 --- _______ levelizing factor levelizing factor o.7 1T.--:V1 . ... I I I I I I -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 m r%i o.7 1T.--:V1 . ... I I I I I I -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 FIGURE 8.4 Levelizing factor (A/P,rd,N)/(A/P,rde,N) as function of rd and rde. (a) N = 5 yr, (b) N = 10 yr, (c) N = 20 yr. Several features may be noted in Figure 8.4. First, the levelizing factor increases with cost escalation re, being unity if re = 0. Second, for a given escalation rate, the levelizing factor decreases as the discount rate increases, reflecting the fact that a high discount rate de-emphasizes the influence of high costs in the future.

## Solar Stirling Engine Basics Explained

The solar Stirling engine is progressively becoming a viable alternative to solar panels for its higher efficiency. Stirling engines might be the best way to harvest the power provided by the sun. This is an easy-to-understand explanation of how Stirling engines work, the different types, and why they are more efficient than steam engines.

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