551Working Fluids

Water has been the dominant fluid for use in high temperature Rankine cycle systems because of its large latent heat of vaporization, good transport properties, availability, and ease of use. However, in low temperature heat source Rankine cycles such as heat recovery applications, the large latent heat of vaporization of water results in low boiling temperature and low cycle efficiency. Organic fluids are superior to water in these applications. A wide variety of organic (carbon-atom based) fluids have been used in low temperature heat recovery applications. Refrigerants are typically used up to 400°F. Hydrocarbons such as toluene are used at higher temperatures. Fluid characteristics such as thermal decomposition limits, flammability, cost, and availability must all be considered when designing the low temperature organic Rankine cycle.

Solar Stirling Engine Basics Explained

Solar Stirling Engine Basics Explained

The solar Stirling engine is progressively becoming a viable alternative to solar panels for its higher efficiency. Stirling engines might be the best way to harvest the power provided by the sun. This is an easy-to-understand explanation of how Stirling engines work, the different types, and why they are more efficient than steam engines.

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