1364Transportation and Storage Costs

Biomass is delivered by trucks or rail transportation to power generation facilities as a solid fuel. Individual power producers establish specifications for the material they will accept. The specifications define the average size of the material (i.e., chips 1 to 3"), the acceptable limits for fines, the maximum inorganic content, average moisture, and similar parameters. The necessity of meeting these requirements falls upon the feedstock producer, who is usually independent of the power producer. Thus, the power producer typically agrees to buy defined types of feedstock at prices determined by contracts or the market. The cost of initial preparation and transportation of the material is included in the delivered feedstock costs described above.

Individual facilities store sufficient feedstock to last for a few days or months depending on location. Areas where weather may prevent year-round harvesting require longer storage periods than those with regular feedstock availability. Biomass storage is usually in outdoor piles with minimal cover. Due to biological activity, loss of the feedstock in the piles is typically 0.5 to 1.0% per month, a level of little significance.

When needed at the conversion facility, the bulk feedstock is transferred by front-end loaders to mechanized feed systems. These typically include steps to sort off-sized material, separate remaining metal magnetically, and, perhaps, dry the material. The costs of the feedstock preparation and handling steps are included in the capital and operating costs of the conversion facility.

Solar Stirling Engine Basics Explained

Solar Stirling Engine Basics Explained

The solar Stirling engine is progressively becoming a viable alternative to solar panels for its higher efficiency. Stirling engines might be the best way to harvest the power provided by the sun. This is an easy-to-understand explanation of how Stirling engines work, the different types, and why they are more efficient than steam engines.

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