1254 DG Considerations

The opportunity for DG is driven by one of two factors: research or economics. Where research is the objective, actual cost is less important than operating strategy. Where economics is the objective, risk management is the important consideration. DG resources of the photovoltaic, wind, microturbine, and fuel cell type are the subjects of many research programs. The objective of this

* Generating sets are typically rated in kW and power factor. The industry standard is to rate the set at some kW and 0.8 pf. Accordingly, a 10 MW generator set would have a 12.5 MVA generator.

research is to find an economical environment that would encourage investment of user capital in these types of DG. Those that find economic justification will quickly promulgate throughout the DG environment. Prime movers that burn hydrocarbon or other fuels are in broad-scale use throughout the electrical environment today. To the extent that these prime movers will meet siting EPA requirements, they can be implemented. Accordingly, this discussion will ignore considerations of the prime movers and concentrate on the electrical environment with which the outputs will interface.

There are two ways to implement DG: operation in parallel with the grid or operation independent of the grid (islanded). In the islanded mode, electric load will be transferred from the grid to the DG unit. A subset of the islanded mode is closed transition transfer to and from the grid. In this mode, the two power sources are momentarily paralleled. This operation minimizes load disturbances. Islanded power plant operation is in wide-scale use throughout the world. It is typically called emergency and standby power. There are pros and cons for each mode. In the parallel mode, protective relaying is required to protect the DG unit and facility power system from adverse effects introduced by the grid and to protect the grid from adverse effects introduced by the DG unit.

Solar Stirling Engine Basics Explained

Solar Stirling Engine Basics Explained

The solar Stirling engine is progressively becoming a viable alternative to solar panels for its higher efficiency. Stirling engines might be the best way to harvest the power provided by the sun. This is an easy-to-understand explanation of how Stirling engines work, the different types, and why they are more efficient than steam engines.

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