1241 Notes on Figure 122

1. In Figure 12.2, the "box" itself will require some form of third-party testing and certification, such as UL or CSA. Design, testing, and listing of fuel cell power plants up to 600 volts AC and 1 MW output fall back on ANSI Z21.83, American National Standard for Fuel Cell Power Plants.

2. As a general rule, all electrical wiring must be stranded annealed copper, regardless of prime mover.

3. Although neither NFPA 37 nor NFPA 853 specifies enclosure requirements beyond a reasonable level of protection against unauthorized access and general protection against hazardous conditions, the local code official may require that the cabinet meet NEMA standards for explosion-proof enclosures (no one has reported this yet, however) and that any unit installed outdoors be protected from natural elements and vehicular impact.

4. All fuel gas systems utilizing service pressures under 125 psig must be installed and operated in accordance with NFPA 54, the National Fuel Gas Code. Fuel piping must be steel or other metal and in compliance with NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code. Additionally, all pressure-boosting equipment must be certified for design, construction, and testing according to ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Fuel cell systems utilizing compressed natural gas must also meet NFPA 52 requirements and the Compressed Natural Gas Vehicular Fuel Systems Code; hydrogen piping falls under ASME B31.3, Process Piping.

5. All liquid petroleum gas systems (liquid or vapor phase) must be installed in accordance with NFPA 58, Standard for the Storage and Handling of Liquid Petroleum Gases. The Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code and API 620 (American Petroleum Institute), Design and Construction of Large Welded Low-Pressure Storage Tanks, may also apply. On-site hydrogen — gaseous or liquefied — storage falls under NFPA 50A and NFPA 50B, respectively. Liquid fuels such as diesel, ethanol, and methanol must be installed as prescribed in NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code.

6. Outdoor and rooftop installations generally require a cement foundation for the integrated package.

7. The distance between the unit and buildings, ventilation systems, or access ways may be clearly defined, such as a minimum of five feet, or it may be left to the local code official to determine reasonable access.

8. Interconnection to the local electric distribution system will fall under IEEE 1547, Standard for Distributed Resources Interconnected with Electric Power Systems, expected to be completed by 2002 (see Section 12.5, Interconnection, for further information).

9. Local zoning ordinances (definition of hazardous materials and relation to residential zones, distance to property line and rights-of-way, access by local fire and safety authorities, etc.) may need to be consulted in some areas. Additionally, local building inspectors may require that a fire risk evaluation be performed for each installation with respect to design, layout, and operating conditions of the unit. The inspector may then require any or several fire protection systems (portable versus fixed, foam or gaseous extinguishers, automatic sprinklers or dry chemical fire suppression systems).

Solar Stirling Engine Basics Explained

Solar Stirling Engine Basics Explained

The solar Stirling engine is progressively becoming a viable alternative to solar panels for its higher efficiency. Stirling engines might be the best way to harvest the power provided by the sun. This is an easy-to-understand explanation of how Stirling engines work, the different types, and why they are more efficient than steam engines.

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