1053 Ancillary Benefits

In a restructured electric industry, CHP and other DG options can offer grid support to the distribution utility. They also give energy service providers (ESPs) or users the ability to offer ancillary services to the system, including:

• Voltage and frequency support to enhance reliability and power quality

• Avoidance or deferral of high cost; long lead time T&D upgrades

• Bulk power risk management

• Reduced line losses; reactive power control

• Outage cost savings

• Reduced central station generating reserve requirements

• Transmission capacity release

ESPs are working now to determine the quantity and value of benefits derived from grid-support and ancillary services that accrue from installing CHP and other DG systems.

CHP offers a customer enhanced reliability, operational and load management flexibility (when also connected to the grid), ability to arbitrage electric and gas prices, and energy management (including peak shaving and possibilities for enhanced thermal energy storage). The value of these benefits will depend on the characteristics of the facility, the form and amount of energy it uses, load profile, rate tariffs, prices of electricity and gas, and other factors. A facility making a CHP purchase decision will have to consider the ancillary benefits, including the revenue stream possible from sale of the transmission and distribution benefits to the ISO and reduced operating costs, along with the other costs and benefits of the project.

Global Warming Implications of CHP

Tons CO2/MWh

Utility

Boiler-Steam Turbine -

NATURAL GAS -

- Power Generation On -

Combined Cycle-Gas Turbine 200 MW

Recip Engine 5 MW <1000 kW Gas Turbine

1.06

U.S. Utility Mix Year 2000

U.S. Utility Mix Year 2000

FIGURE 10.8

Comparison of CO2 emissions from electricity generation. (Source: (1) GRI Report Light Duty Vehicle Full Fuel Cycle Emissions Analysis, 1994; (2) Gas Turbine Environmental Analysis and Policy Considerations, Onsite Energy, 1997; (3) Sierra Energy and Risk Assessment, SoCalGas UEG Customer End-Use Specific Avoided Energy GT&D Costs and Emissions, 1997.)

1.06

Utility

Boiler-Steam Turbine -

Solar Stirling Engine Basics Explained

Solar Stirling Engine Basics Explained

The solar Stirling engine is progressively becoming a viable alternative to solar panels for its higher efficiency. Stirling engines might be the best way to harvest the power provided by the sun. This is an easy-to-understand explanation of how Stirling engines work, the different types, and why they are more efficient than steam engines.

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