With the resurgence of interest in solid oxide fuel cells and other solid state electrochemical devices, techniques originally developed for characterizing aqueous systems are being adapted and applied to solid state systems. One of these techniques, three-electrode impedance spectroscopy, is particularly powerful as it allows characterization of subcomponent and interfacial properties. Obtaining accurate impedance spectra, however, is difficult as reference electrode impedance is usually non-negligible and solid electrolytes typically have much lower conductance than aqueous solutions. Faidi et al and Chechirlian et al have both identified problems associated with low conductivity media (1,2). Other sources of error are still being uncovered. Ford et al identified resistive contacts with large time constants as a possibility, while Xie et al showed that the small contact capacitance of the reference electrode was at fault (3,4). Still others show that instrument limitations play a role (5). Using the voltage divider concept, a simplified model that demonstrates the interplay of these various factors, predicts the form of possible distortions, and offers means to minimize errors is presented.

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