Zirconia powder with 8 mole percent Y2O3 (Tosoh Corp., Japan) was isostatically pressed into a cylindrical sample and sintered in air at 1400°C for 2 hours. The sample was 1.7 cm in diameter and 3.0 cm long. Unfluxed platinum paint (Engelhard Corp., NJ) was applied to the flat ends and fired at 900°C to form working (WE) and counter (CE) electrodes. Two small axial holes approximately 1.0 mm in diameter, 0.4 cm deep were drilled into the YSZ sample, one from each end. 0.010" diameter silver wire, terminated in a small bead, was inserted into one hole to form a silver reference electrode (RE). A similarly prepared platinum wire was inserted into the opposite hole to form a platinum reference electrode. Impedance spectra were collected at 570°C using the Solartron 1260 frequency response analyzer (1260 FRA) from 1 MHz to 10 mHz without a potentiostat.

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