The realization of the BOP system was performed according to the planned activities. However, the technical complexibility combined with operational requirements were to some extent more comprehensive than anticipated, causing some delay of the project milestones. Several challenging engineering tasks related to high temperature materials, thermoelastic deformations and sealing were identified. The required effort was put on design, analysis and testing, resulting in satisfactory solutions.

The operational tolerances of stacks are basically low, leaving the instrumentation, control and monitoring of the system to be carefully designed in order to avoid fatal incidents. Risk analysis and hazop studies confirmed the safe design of the plant, and authorisation was given for contruction and operation of the pilot plant by Norwegian authorities and Statoii.

In our opinion there is no fundamental barrier prohibiting the realization of commercial SOFC plants. However, to reach this goal, elements of the present concept have to be changed or modified, and all manufacturing processes have to be industrially optimized in order to reduce cost.


1. R. 0degärd. Proceedings of the 1994 Fuel Cell Seminar, San Diego, California, 1994, p. 658.

2. F. Blaker. Proceedings of the First European Solide Oxide Fuel Cell Forum, Lucerne, Switzerland, 1994, p.49.

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