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Power Source Thermal Efficiency - % Figure 1: Approximate "Design Space" for Achieving 3X Fuel Economy Improvement to achieving the PNGV goal (1). This figure clearly indicates the particular appeal of fuel cells — their higher efficiencies would lessen the requirement for mass reduction and other vehicle system improvements to meet the PNGV's 80-mpg goal.

USCAR System Requirements, Analysis & Goals, Technical Reviews, R&D Priorities

DOE Prog. Management, Procurement, Budgeting & Resource

Allocation, Technology/Program Assessment

LABS R&D of Critical Technical Barriers Assist Suppliers T&E^ldv.Concepts, Analysis & Modeling

ADVISORS/ STAKEHOLDERS — Fuel Providers Federal/State Govt Stationary/Bulling

SUPPLIERS PEM Fuel Cell System, Multlfuel Processor & Component Development

AUTOMAKERS EV Powertraln Design, Vehicle Engineering, Packaging Design

Technology Development Flow

Figure 2: National Fuel Cell Alliance

User/ /Customer

To effectively address PNGV requirements and overcome the significant technical barriers facing fuel cells, the National Fuel Cell Alliance (see Figure 2) has been established among DOE, industry, national laboratories, and universities. The Alliance provides a mechanism for obtaining industry consensus and recommendations for program direction and it facilitates sharing of government-sponsored fuel cell R&D results among the domestic auto industry. Under this structure, the Big Three U.S. automakers provide technical requirements through the United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) and will determine whether the fuel cell technology meets customer expectations. DOE maintains overall management responsibility for the program and contracts with fuel cell developers, component suppliers, and research institutions to conduct the pre-competitive R&D identified by USCAR. Independent teams of the Big Three automakers and fuel cell and component suppliers have formed to apply the results of this research to develop fuel cell vehicles. National laboratories and universities are conducting supporting R&D on enabling technologies (e.g. fuel processing technologies) and advanced concepts (e.g. direct methanol fuel cells). Close coordination is maintained with DOE's Hydrogen Program with respect to fuel reforming and hydrogen production and storage development activities.

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