Decentralization

Decentralization is the current new wave of the 90's and will continue. We are steadily moving into the next century -the Electric Century. Decentralization has brought the need for new and relevant technologies for stationary and mobile power for innovative, adaptive and smart control systems and for discreet chemical processes in modular form. There is a decided shift from Big is Better to Small is Beneficial. Small systems can be made from factory produced components and modules. Mass...

The Lowtemperature Partialoxidation Reforming Of Fuels For Transportation Fuel Cell Systems

Krumpelt Electrochemical Technology Program Chemical Technology Division Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, IL 60439 Passenger cars powered by fuel cell propulsion systems with high efficiency offer superior fuel economy, very low to zero pollutant emissions, and the option to operate on alternative and or renewable fuels. Although the fuel cell operates on hydrogen, a liquid fuel such as methanol or gasoline is more attractive for automotive use because of the...

Abstract

A 2 k V class combined cell stacked module (182 cm2 X 4X 17) was examined. An output power of 2.47 kW and output power density of 0.20 Y cm2 were obtained at the current density of 0.3 A cm2. The temperature uniformity is an important factor to develop large scale SOFC modules. Therefore, in this 2 k V class module, one cell was divided into four smaller unit cells to decrease temperature difference across these cells. Moreover, an internal heat-exchanging duct was arranged to spend the surplus...

Vehicle Fuel Efficiency Modeling

The results of the reformer analysis were integrated with a fuel cell electric vehicle model in order to assess the effect of reformer efficiency, reformer weight, and ref rmate quality upon the fuel economy of the vehicle. The model, recently developed by Steinbugler (13), determines the power required for a given vehicle to cover an arbitrary driving cycle. It determines the size and weight of the fuel cell, fuel storage, and peaking device (if included) necessary to achieve a given...

Info

A variety of hydrogen storage technologies are being considered for vehicular applications, including physical storage, chemical carriers, gas-on-solid adsorption, and metal hydrides. These techniques have been compared in terms of weight, volume, complexity, cost, dormancy, and safety.p,6 By (j,e criteria discussed in those references, compressed gas storage using carbon fiber composite pressure vessels wound onto metal or plastic liners has been identified as one of the best near-term...

Conclusions

Increasing the particle size of the La,.,Sr,Mn03 cathode results in higher overpotentials, but lends long term stability at 1000 C. Increasing the cathode firing temperature increases the overpotential, although the microstructure remains fairly constant. Although 800 C yields the best initial results, after 24 h of operation the overpotential climbs sharply. We have found that 1000 C gives the best performance stability combination. At 1 A cm2, the cathodic overpotential is 0.1 V, which is...

48

SOFCs manufactured by a wide variety of traditional ceramic methods and atmospheric pressure spraying cost 500 to 600 m2 ( 250-300 kW at 2 kW m2) the better raw material utilization of the ceramic processes offsets the faster rate of the plasma spray (Figure 1). Vacuum processes are considerably more expensive, increasing the cost of production by 200 to 300 m2, while the use of a ceramic interconnect increases the costs by roughly 500 m2. It is also important to note that the cost of...

To

36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 2 0 Fig.2. Typical In-situ X-ray diffractograms of alloy-electrocatalysts during the anodic polarization (240 C, 0.8 mh cm2. ca. 0.9V ) 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 2 0 Fig.2. Typical In-situ X-ray diffractograms of alloy-electrocatalysts during the anodic polarization (240 C, 0.8 mh cm2. ca. 0.9V ) Effecl of temperature and potential for corrosion of the alloy-electrocalalysts Considering that the main peak between 36 and 44 of the corroded electrocatalyst consisted of...

Dt

RNi denotes the formation rate of Ni based on unit surface area of the pore. In this study we assume simple reaction kinetics for Ni formation Fig. 1. Cylindrical pore of the matrix for modeling Ni deposition. Fig. 1. Cylindrical pore of the matrix for modeling Ni deposition. and reaction rate for reactant i based on unit pore volume, Rj, can be correlated with RNi by

Commercial Ballard Pem Fuel Cell Natural Gas Power Plant Development

Watkins, David Dunnison Ballard Power Systems Inc. 9000 Glenlyon Parkway Burnaby, British Columbia Canada V5J 5 J9 Ronald Cohen FCP Engineering 21837 Reflection Lane Boca Raton, Florida USA 33428 The electric utility industry is in a period of rapid change. Deregulation, wholesale and retail wheeling, and corporate restructuring are forcing utilities to adopt new techniques for conducting their business. The advent of a more customer oriented service business with tailored solutions...

06

Figure 1 Current-voltage curves for methanol clcctro-oxidation at pH 8, using colloidal metal catalysts supported on carbon. Electrode compositions are Pt, Pt Ru (50 50), and Pt Rh Os (60 15 25). The optimum composition was found by combinatorial screening of ternary combinations of Pt, Ru, Os, Rh, and Pd, using acridine as a fluorescent indicator. Pt(50) Ru(50) catalyst. At lower pH, the performance of Pi(60) C)s(25) Rh(15) is slightly inferior to that of Pt(50) Ru(50), but still much better...

800

0 0.1 02 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 09 1 Reactor dlmenslonless length A model to calculate the gas composition, the adiabatic temperature and its longitudinal profile along a reactor for the CSPOM has been developed, in f order to design a 5 Nm3 syngas h reactor, and thereafter to scale-up towards larger units of a size typically needed to supply gases to a 50-200 kW Fuel Cell Power Plant The model allows sensitivity studies to be performed for a variety of reactor designs in the capacity range of...

500

Too 120 140 160 180 200 220 Temperature CC) 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 Temperature (C) Fig.2 CO Oxidation Performance of Ru and Pt Catalysts too 120 140 160 180 200 220 Temperature CC) 100 120 140 160 180 200 Temperature (13) 100 120 140 160 180 200 Temperature (13) Fig.3 Reverse Shift Reaction of Ru and Pt Catalysts Fig.4 CO Methanation Reaction of Ru Catalyst

Acknowledgments

The design and fabrication of the fiiel cell stack modules was done with U.S. Department of Energy support through Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-92MC29237. The guidance and support of the METC Contracting Officer's Representative, Mr. Thomas J. George, has been greatly appreciated. The design and procurement of the balance of plant and the construction and testing of the complete system has been supported by the Santa Clara Demonstration...

Experiments

To investigate the PTFE effect in the electrode, FIFE content was varied in the range of from 25 to 65 weight percent at the sintering temperature of 350 C. To investigate the sintering temperature effect in the electrode, temperature was varied in the range of from 310 to 390 C and PTFE content was 45 weight percent. Phosphoric Acid absorption on electrocatalyst layer and the cathode polarization are measured in 190 C phosphoric acid. When the temperature of electrolyte is heated from room...

Xray Absorption And Electrochemical Studies Of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Catalysts

Aldykiewicz, Jr., Shannon F. Baxter, and Michael Krumpelt Electrochemical Technology Program Argonne National Laboratory 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne, Illinois 60439 In order for polymer electrolyte fuel cells to operate directly on methanol instead of hydrogen, a distinct advantage for portable applications, methanol oxidation must be catalyzed effectively in the acidic environment of the cell. Platinum-ruthenium and platinum-ruthenium oxide are generally...

High Power Density Fuel Cell Stack Development For Automotive Applications

9000 Glenlyon Parkway Burnaby, British Columbia Michael Reindl and Werner Tillmetz Dornier GmbH department FOEE D-88039 Friedrichshafen Germany This paper describes the joint development by Daimler-Benz and Ballard Power Systems of a high power-density fuel cell stack and its demonstration in a 6-passenger Minivan. The PEM fuel cell is generally recognized as a promising candidate to realize society's objectives of ultra low and zero-emission vehicles. Ballard Power Systems has been working on...

Status Of Mcfc Stack Technology At

M.Hosaka, T.Morita, T.Matsuyama and M.Otsubo Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. The molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) is a promising option for highly efficient power generation possible to enlarge. IHI has been studying parallel flow MCFC stacks with internal manifolds that have a large electrode area of lm . IHI will make two 250 kW stacks for MW plant, and has begun to make cell components for the plant. To improve the stability of stack, soft corrugated plate used in the...

References

Magnotta, Lightweight bladder lined pressure vessels, Disclosure and Record of Invention, DOE Case No. IL-9722,1995. 2. F. Mitlitsky, NJ. Colella, B. Myers, and CJ. Anderson, Regenerative Fuel Cells for High Altitude Long Endurance Solar Powered Aircraft, Proc. 28th IECEC, Vol. I,, pp. 1255-1262, Aug. 8-13,1993 (UCRL-JC-113485). 3. F. Mitlitsky, NJ. Colella, and B. Myers, Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cells for Solar Rechargeable Aircraft and Zero Emission Vehicles,...

Discovery Of Methanol Electrooxidation Catalysts By Combinatorial Analysis

Pu2, K. L. Ley2, and E.S. Smotkin*2 'Deparmcnt of Chemistry The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 and department of Chcmical Engineering Illinois Institute of Technology , Chicago, IL 60616 Hydrogen fuel cclls are likely to become a major energy source in the next century, but they are not ideal for all applications. A safe alternative fuel with a high energy density will be necessary for transportation and mobile applications. Direct...

Structure Property relationships in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

Anderson Department of Ceramic Engineering University of Missouri - Rolla 222 McNutt Hall Rolla, MO 65401 The electrode reactions are a major cause of the energy losses in SOFC's, and limit their use to higher temperatures, typically 800-l000oC. The electrode reactions have received much attention aimed at better understanding the electrode kinetics and mechanisms, but are still very primitive in their basic understanding. The electrode microstructure and its...

7

Improved 25kW stack in 1994 1 , The D.C. output of the unit stack is 263kW. The two stacks are connected in series to an inverter, and the A.C. output from the inverter is planned to be 500k V. Fig. 1 shows the planning structure of the 250kW stack. The stack will consist of six modules and use bellows to compress the modules. Each module will be heated and checked separately at the work shop in Hitachi, and it will be transported after storage. The modules will be stacked to the full height at...

Fuel Cell Systems For A Sustainable Energy Production

Timo Kivisaari Royal Institute of Technology Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology Chemical Technology S-100 44 Stockholm Sweden When talking about fuel cell systems for stationary applications, two of the advantages are claimed to be a high inherent efficiency and environmentally favourable characteristics. It should, however, be obvious to everybody that in order to call an energy production Toute environmentally benign, it is not enough that just the energy production step itself...

Conclusion

The equilibrium adsorption isotherm and breakthrough data were used to assess the feasibility of developing a granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorber for use as a sulfur removal subsystem in transportation fuel cell systems. Results of this analysis suggest that an on-board GAC adsorber may not be attractive due to its size and weight constraints. However, it may be feasible to install this GAC adsorber at methanol distribution stations, where space and weight are not a critical concern. A...

Casera T Bozzoni Ansaldo CLC srl

Via D'Annunzio 105,16121 Genova (Italy) G. Porcino. A. Pasquimtcci Eniclic n s.p.a. Via Taramelli 26,20124 Milano (Italy) Chemical and petrochemical industries generate large quantities of hydrogen-rich streams, in the range 50 -100 H2 concentration by volume, as by-products of electrochemical or de-hydrogcnalion processes, or exhausts purging in hydrogenation processes. Due to safety aspccts, and because of the low density, which makes difficult transportation and storage, such streams often...

Stack Fabrication

AlliedSignal has developed a simple and cost-effective process for fabricating multicell stacks. (i) Thin-electrolyte cells are made by tape calendering. Tape calendering is a conventional ceramic forming method that involves squeezing a softened thermoplastic polymer ceramic mix between two rolls to produce a continuous sheet of material. The tape calendering process for fabricating thin-electrolyte cells involves progressive rolling (calendering) of green (unfired) ceramic tapes to form a...

Nyserda Program

The three New York fuel cells were located at St. Vincent's Hospital - Staten Island Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) - Rochester The St. Vincent's Hospital and RTT sites were monitored for 18 months and Reifler Cement was monitored for ten months. A description of each installation and a summary of operating statistics is provided below. The fuel cell at St. Vincent's Hospital in Staten Island, NY is configured to operate solely in the grid connected electrical mode. The fuel cell...

Tuesday November 191996

Petersburg Sarasota Rooms 7 30 am- Presenters Practice Room Open Ft. Lauderdale Room 8 00 am- Registration Tamiami Lounge 8 00 am- Continental Breakfast Tamiami Lounge 8 00 am- Guest Hospitality Room Open Key Largo Room 9 00 am- TRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS I Casselberry Orlando Hall 9 10 am- Breaking Down the Barriers to Commercialization of Fuel Cells 9 30 am in Transportation Through Government Industry R& D Programs 258 S. Chalk, U.S. Department of...

5099

The PEM fuel cell has a maximum output of 9 kJ s electric power. This is based on a determined efficiency of 60 and a calculated hydrogen volumetric flow of 4.95 m3OTp h. The over all efficiency of the PEM fuel cell system is computed to be 42.2 . For the latter electric power is the only considered system output. The results of this study are based on the conditions described above. l Casper, M.S. ed. Hydrogen Manufacture by Electrolysis, Thermal Decomposition and Unusual Techniques Park...

Mcfc Stacks

GiorgiW, J. G. Mart nO, G. RocchiniC ), F. J. Sim n OAnsaldo Ricerche S.r.l., Corso Perrone 25,1-16161 Genova ( )ENEA, Via Anguillarese 301,1-00060 Roma WlBERDROLA S.A., C Goya 4, S-28001 Madrid C )ENEL S.p.A. - CRAM, Via Rubat no 54,1-20134 Milano (*)Babcock & Wilcox Espa ola, S.A Fabrica Galindo, S-48510 Galindo - Vizcaya An interesting way of reducing the production costs of the electrical energy by improving efficicncy and, at the same time, having a...

Pefc Drive Electric Vehicle

Iwahashi, K.Tsumura Fukui University of Technology, 3-6-1 Gakuen, Fukui City Fukui Prefecture, 910 Japan Efforts have been made to develop fuel cell powered EVs (electric vehicles) in several countries and to demonstrate its high potential. Since 1990 fuel cell research has been conducted at FUT (the Fukui University of Technology) beginning with PAFC. Research effort is now being focused upon the application of fuel cells to the EV drive as this technology...

Sweden

4) Performance of Pt-Co Alloys and CoTPP Catalysts for the Reduction Y. Kiros, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, SWEDEN, A. Sampathrajan and M. Ramanathan, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, INDIA 5) FCPP Application to Utilize Anaerobic Digester Gas 702 Y. Nakayama, N. Kusama and K. Wada, Toshiba Corporation, Tokyo, JAPAN 6) Local Biofuels Power Plants with Fuel Cell Generators 706 O. Lindstrom, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, SWEDEN 7) Integrated Analysis of the...

024

Parameters of each materials we used are shown in Table 2. The results of calculation are obtained as the stress distribution in the cell components. Using these results and the mechanical properties of 8YSZ sheets which we measured'', we roughly estimated the failure probability of the 20 cm square 8 YSZ sheets in the cooling cycle. It can be calculated from the equation (1) using Weibull parameter such as 'shape parameter' m and 'scale parameter' . Because the main cause of failure in 8YSZ...

Development Of Advanced Concepts For Dirmcfc Cogeneration Applications In The European Market

Ottervanger1 and Andrew L. Dicks2 'Dutch Fuel Cell Corporation (BCN) PO Box 1093,1940 EB Beverwijk, The Netherlands Tel nr. 31-251-279200 Fax 31-251-223887 E-mail sae euronet.nl 2British Gas pic, Research and Technology Division Ashby Road, Loughborough, Leicestershire LEI 1 3QU, United Kingdom Tel 44-1509-282818 Fax 44-1509-283144 E-mail andrew.dicks bggrc.co.uk Early 1996 a three year (1996 - 1998) joint European project was launched under the name 'Advanced DIR-MCFC...

System Configuration

The 1000 kW on site PAFC power plant is being developed as a regeneration system that can be installed in a large building in an urban setting, and the following concepts were identified as the development and design targets For installation in large building complex in urban setting (on site type) For supplying electrical power and thermal energy (to be especially efficient in supplying the energy for air-conditioning of large buildings) Compact and well-integrated configuration for easy...

Status Of Mcfc Stack Development At Hitachi

Takeuchi, Y. Amano, and T. Yoshida Fuel Cell Development Center Hitachi Works, Hitachi, Ltd. 1-1, saiwaicho 3-Chome, Hitachi-shi, Ibaraki, 317, Japan Hitachi, Ltd. has been developing Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells in the New Sunshine project in Japan, and Hitachi is taking part in the development of a l.OOOkW MCFC pilot plant at Kawagoe. Hitachi is engaged in system planning of the l.OOOkW pilot plant, design and manufacturing of the reformer subsystem and the fuel...

Introduction

To estimate distributions of current densities, voltages, gas concentrations, etc., in phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) stacks, is very important for getting fuel cells with higher quality. In this work, we have developed a numerical simulation tool to map out the distribution in a PAFC stack. And especially to study current density distribution in the reaction area of the cell, we analyzed gas composition in several positions inside a gas outlet manifold of the PAFC stack. Comparing these...

Demonstration Of Direct Internal Reforming For Mcfc Power Plants

Simonsen, *P.S. Christensen, *S.K. Winther, *E. Jorn, *C. Olsen, *E.J. Jensen *HALDOR TOPS0E A S, Nymolievej 55, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark **EIkraft AmbA, Lautruphoj 5, DK-2750 Ballerup, Denmark The conversion of methane into hydrogen for an MCFC by steam reforming is accomplished either externally or internally in the stack. In the case of external reforming the plant electrical efficiency is 5 abs. lower mainly because more parasitic power is required for air...

Dynamic Simulation Of A Direct Carbonate Fuel Cell Power Plant

Irvine, CA 92698 USA Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh and Ashok K. Rush Fuel Cell Engineering, a subsidiary of Energy Research Corporation Danbury, CT 06813 Fuel Cell Engineering Corporation (FCE) is commercializing a 2.85 MW Direct carbonate Fuel Cell (DFC) power plant. The commercialization sequence has already progressed through construction and operation (Ref. 1) of the first commercial-scale DFC power plant on a U.S. electric utility, the 2 MW Santa Clara...

Wgar

SDAC Steain double effect absorption chiller healer WDAC Water-driven double effect absorption cooler chiller SDAC Steain double effect absorption chiller healer WDAC Water-driven double effect absorption cooler chiller The PC25C (made by ONSI-TOSHIBA) equips a high grade heat option that allows the recovery of high-temperature water below 120Ae by exchanging heat with the cell cooling water. WGAR utilizes this waste high-temperature water above 8SC. A cooling capacity device of 150 USRT(527kW)...

The Santa Clara Demonstration Project SCDP

In April 1994, ground was broken for the plant's construction the balance-of-plant (BOP) was completely installed by June 1995. Historically, the BOP portion of fuel cell plants have been the primary source of plant trips and malfunctions. Consequently, the SCDP's BOP was pre-tested in advance of the DFC stack submodules being installed. This conservative approach lowers the risk that a faulty BOP operation causes the new technology stacks to perform below our expectations. During the...

Lightweight Pressure Vessels And Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cells

F.Mitlitsky,B.Myers,andA.H.Weisberg . Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory 7000 East AVE, P.O. Box 808.L-045 Livermore, CA 94551-0808 High specific energy (> 400 Wh kg) energy storage systems have been designed using lightweight pressure vessels in conjunction with unitized regenerative fuel cells (URFCs). URFCs produce power and electrolytically regenerate their reactants using a single stack of reversible cells. Although a rechargeable energy storage system with such high specific energy...

Lpg Vaporization Characteristics

22.0 Nm' h of LPG is vaporized by utilizing exhaust heat from the plant only for the heat source of the LPG vaporizer at AC 200 kW power generation. 8.4kW of the parasite-power consumption is decreased by heating up the recycled hot water in the LPG vaporizer with the tertiary coolant instead of an electric heater located at the hot water tank when power is generated at AC 200 kW by LPG. The fuel-cell DC output power at AC 200 kW power generation by pipeline town gas and that by LPG are...