The End Of Fossil Fuels - Our Green Energy

Guide to Alternative Fuels

Guide to Alternative Fuels

Your Alternative Fuel Solution for Saving Money, Reducing Oil Dependency, and Helping the Planet. Ethanol is an alternative to gasoline. The use of ethanol has been demonstrated to reduce greenhouse emissions slightly as compared to gasoline. Through this ebook, you are going to learn what you will need to know why choosing an alternative fuel may benefit you and your future.

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426 Alternative fuels

Because of concerns about fossil fuel reserves, alternative fuels originally gained attention in the 1970s as potential substitutes for petroleum-based fuels. These shortages did not materialize but the environmental advantages of alternative fuels have sustained public interest. The fuels of greatest interest are reformulated diesel fuel, compressed natural gas, alcohols, and biodiesel. Reformulated diesel fuel is often not considered to be an alternative fuel because it is still based on nonrenewable

The Effect Of Operation And Design Parameters On The Performance Of The Direct Methanol Fuel Cell

Fuel cell technology continues to receive considerable attention as a potential replacement for fossil fuels as a primary source of terrestrial power. Ideally, such power systems would operate at relatively low temperatures (< 100 C) which suggests strongly the use of cell technology based upon the proton exchange membrane (PEM). Without question, hydrogen is a very desirable fuel choice for these types of systems, because of its high energy density. However, the difficulties associated with the production and routine handling of hydrogen limit severely its commercial use at present. The direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is a particularly attractive alternative to the use of the hydrogen oxygen cell. Although not as high as hydrogen, the energy density of methanol is the highest among the organic fuels. Furthermore, because of the similarity in liquid handling requirements between methanol and gasoline, a significant portion of the infrastructure necessary for the marketing and...

4123Direct Methanol Fuel Cell DMFC

The direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is a result of research on using methanol as the fuel that can be carried on-board a vehicle and reformed to supply hydrogen to the fuel cell. A DMFC works on the same principle as the PEM, except that the temperature is increased to the range of 90 to 120 C such that internal reformation of methanol into hydrogen is possible. The electrical efficiency of DMFC is quite low at about 30 . This type of fuel cell is still in the design stages, because the search for a good electrocatalyst to reform the methanol efficiently and to reduce oxygen in the presence of methanol is ongoing.

Coal Derived and Related Fossil Fuels

In addition to the vast global reserve of coal, other fossil fuels in large reserve include shale and tar sands. Shale and tar sands are amenable to producing oil. Based on current technologies and oil prices, no extensive commercial production of shale oil is expected for many years. Tar sands, however, have already been economically

Xray Absorption And Electrochemical Studies Of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Catalysts

We are considering three enhancement mechanisms. An intermediate in the oxidation of methanol on platinum is carbon monoxide and its oxidation is the rate-determining step in the overall oxidation mechanism 1 , It has been proposed that ruthenium facilitates the removal of carbon monoxide from the platinum surface 2 . First, it has been proposed that ruthenium decreases the strength of the platinum-carbon monoxide bond. Carbon monoxide bonds to the catalyst by interacting with the d-band of platinum 3 , therefore a change in the d-band occupancy of platinum as a result of alloying may influence the bond strength of carbon monoxide. Another proposed enhancement mechanism involves lowering of the potential for the formation of the CO-oxidizing species 2 , Finally, the binary catalysts may have a structure which is more conducive to the methanol dehydrogenation and carbon monoxide reactions 4 . Based on these three proposed enhancement mechanisms, a goal of this study is to correlate...

15 Energy and the World

All of the activities of human beings depend on energy, as we realize when we consider the dimensions of the world's energy problem. The efficient production of food requires machines, fertilizer, and water, each using energy in a different way. Energy is vital to transportation, protection against the weather, and the manufacturing of all goods. An adequate long-term supply of energy is therefore essential for man's survival. The world energy problem has many dimensions the increasing cost to acquire fuels as they become more scarce the potential for global climate change resulting from burning fossil fuels the effects on safety and health of the

Coal Reserves in the World

Coal is the most abundant fossil fuel in the world. Grimston 3 reported that at the end of 1998, oil reserves were 143 gigatons (Gt) representing a reserve-to-production (R P) ratio of 41 years while natural gas reserves were 132 gigatons of oil equivalent (Gtoe) with a R P ratio of 63 years. Coal was reported to have reserves of 486 Gtoe and a R P ratio of 218 years, roughly double that of oil and natural gas combined. Coal reserves are also more widely distributed throughout the world, as shown in Figure 1-6. All major regions of the world contain coal, except for the Middle East, which contains almost two-thirds of the world oil reserves and, along with the states of the Former Soviet Union (FSU), contains more than two-thirds of the natural gas reserves 3 . The Energy Information Administration (EIA) estimated the reserves of recoverable coal at over 1083 billion short tons as of January 1, 2001 2 . According to the EIA 17 , this is enough coal to last approximately

Bombardieralco Diesel Engines

In 1978, directed the AAR Research and Test Department to establish an Alternative Fuels Research Program. The program was given two objectives 1) identify fuels that could be used to extend or replace No. 2 diesel fuel oil, and 2) identify fuels having the potential for reducing fuel oil costs.

16 Environmental Applications

By extraction through adsorption on the surface of a solid (e.g., activated carbon) with surface porosity. It can also be attained by planting trees, which take in CO2 gas. Pollutant generation can be reduced by changing the materials and or processes used in industry by using biodegradable materials (materials that can be degraded by Nature so that their disposal is not necessary), by using materials that can be recycled, or by changing the energy source from fossil fuels to batteries, fuel cells, solar cells, and or hydrogen.

Wind Turbine Concept In Civil Engineering

Windmills have been used for at least 3000 years, mainly for grinding grain or pumping water, while in sailing ships the wind has been an essential source of power for even longer. From as early as the thirteenth century, horizontal-axis windmills were an integral part of the rural economy and only fell into disuse with the advent of cheap fossil-fuelled engines and then the spread of rural electrification. The use of windmills (or wind turbines) to generate electricity can be traced back to the late nineteenth century with the 12 kW DC windmill generator constructed by Brush in the USA and the research undertaken by LaCour in Denmark. However, for much of the twentieth century there was little interest in using wind energy other than for battery charging for remote dwellings and these low-power systems were quickly replaced once access to the electricity grid became available. One notable exception was the 1250 kW Smith-Putnam wind turbine constructed in the USA in 1941. This...

Coating Durability Study

In 1985, the AAR Alternative Fuels Research Program joined with EMD and the U.S. Maritime Administration (MARAD) in a study to investigate the use of ceramic coatings in medium-speed diesel engines. EMD furnished coated engine components AAR tested the coated components in the twelve-cylinder EMD engine SwRI and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory provided (under contract to AAR) detailed analysis of the coatings and MARAD, in conjunction with EMD, arranged for a long term (9,000 hour) in- service test of an identical set of coated components. The long term test took place in a tugboat.

12 Developments Towards the End of the 20th Century

The problem to the power stations, which can use a wide variety of fuels and where the exhaust emissions can be handled responsibly. Where fossil fuels are burnt for supplying electricity the overall efficiency of supplying energy to the car is not necessarily much better than using a diesel engine or the more modern highly efficient petrol engines. However there is more flexibility in the choice of fuels at the power stations. Also some or all the energy can be obtained from alternative energy sources such as hydro, wind or tidal, which would ensure overall zero emission.

Additional Energy Sources

In addition to the gaseous and liquid fuels discussed in this chapter, there are a host of other energy sources that may be productively used in providing for heating, cooling, process use, and power generation at commercial, industrial, and institutional (CI& I) facilities. These range from fossil fuel sources, such as coal, shale, and tar sands, to renewable sources, such as solar, geothermal, wind, water, and biomass. Other diverse sources range from hydrogen gas to a wide variety of energy sources congealed in common trash. Below is a brief review of several of these alternative sources.

182 Process Modification

A high-sulfur coal to a low-sulfur coal to reduce SOx emissions. In that example, the fuel type remains the same but a different grade or composition is being used. A more radical example would be to change from fossil-fuel heating to electrical heating. In that case, the emissions are moved from the industrial plant location to the power generation facility. Changing fuels is usually referred to as fuel switching. A variation of this technique is to switch part of the fuel, part or all of the time. For example, if the NOx emissions from a combustion process are slightly over a new regulatory limit using oil fuel, then replacing some of that oil fuel with natural gas can reduce the emissions to below the new limit. This has the advantage of using as much of the cheaper fuel as possible. The potential disadvantage is that the combustion system must work on multiple fuels. However, this is not a significant problem today as there are standard burners available for multifuel firing.

2 Overview Of Plastics Conversion Processes

Plastic materials are based on hydrocarbons, a class of organic compounds that contain hydrogen and carbon. The primary source of hydrocarbons today is crude oil, although it is possible to produce them from coal, shale, or other forms of fossil fuel. It is also possible to produce hydrocarbons from other organic matter, such as cereal grains.

201 The Energy Policy Act Of 1992

This comprehensive legislation is far reaching and impacts energy conservation, power generation, and alternative fuel vehicles as well as energy production. The federal as well as private sectors are impacted by this comprehensive energy act. Highlights are described below

Title 1s CO Nonattainment Program

Combustion of carbon-based fuel, such as coal, fuel oil, natural gas, and gasoline. CO impairs the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood. The NAAQS is designed to protect against any harmful effect of CO. The leading source of CO in urban areas is motor vehicles. Other contributing stationary sources include home heating equipment and engines. Control technologies for stationary sources include improved combustion control and capture systems that reuse CO-rich exhaust gases as fuel and afterburners or oxidation catalysts to destroy CO in exhaust streams. An effective means of reducing CO is switching to cleaner fuels, notably natural gas for stationary sources. Motor vehicle controls are similar to those for VOC as both are the product of incomplete combustion. Switching to alternative fuels and gasoline containing oxygen, as well as adopting more stringent automobile inspection and maintenance (I& M) programs, are key CO control measures.

Selecting the Best Rate

Cost savings associated with non-firm service rates, with alternative fuels such as oil or propane, can greatly enhance dual-fuel, direct-fired equipment options. Interruptible rates with electricity as a backup can sometimes allow for lower-cost gas without the investment in dual-fuel capability. This applies to multiple-unit systems, cogeneration, and peak shaving applications. Propane-air systems are sometimes used to provide an alternative fuel source for gas-fired equipment during periods of interruption. These systems provide a propane-air mix (which is sometimes blended with natural gas) that is adjusted to match the heat content and distribution characteristics of natural gas. As such, it can be distributed through the gas piping at a facility and used as an energy source for gas-fired equipment, thereby eliminating the need to install dual-fuel operating capability on each gas-consuming device.

Pem Fuel Cells For Automotive Applications

Department of Energy (DOE) is spearheading an ambitious, cost-shared, Government-industiy R& D program with the goal of developing highly efficient, low or zero emission, automotive fuel cell propulsion systems utilizing conventional and alternative fuels. The near-term objective of the program is to validate fuel cell power systems by the year 2000 that are

Step 9 Evaluating Utility Supply Options

Interactive impacts of alternative fuel and power purchase options will also be considered. Just as a reduction in load brought about by another measure can lower the economic performance of a given measure under consideration, the reduction in fuel or power cost brought about by an alternative purchasing arrangement can lower the economic performance of a potential technology application. Therefore, savings analyses must be performed with a sensitivity toward the cost of energy with alternative fuel and power purchase options in place including long-term escalation (or de-escalation) rates.

Technology Development

An East Coast demonstration power plant will be constructed at ERC's Danbury headquarters. It will be capable of supporting extensive testing of the prototypical commercial power plant as well as being adaptable for alternative fuels testing. This plant's design wilt incorporate improvements validated through the R& D effort, experience from the SCDP, and other findings. The unit and facility is expected to verify improved power plant performance, plant equipment cost reductions, and host field crew proficiency training courses for performing field operations- module handling and installation, plant start-up and acceptance operations, and O& M responses.

238 Energy Policy

It provided energy efficiency goals and standards, promoted alternative fuels, prescribed new R & D on electric vehicles, restructured the production of electricity, addressed radioactive waste disposal, established a uranium enrichment corporation, and simplified nuclear plant licensing. In essence, the law affirms the nation's commitment to preserve and extend the nuclear option as part of a broad energy mix. From the more than 350 pages of the Act, we can highlight the features that are related primarily to nuclear energy, with the understanding that some of the requirements of the law would inevitably be modified by subsequent congressional action. Electric cars. The expansion of usage of electric vehicles, those operating on motors with current supplied by batteries, is mandated by a 10-year commercial demonstration program. DOE is to work with manufacturers and the electric utility industry to develop practical inexpensive vehicles and the infrastructure...

Integrated Resource Planning

Encourage the use of gas-fired cooling technologies, are one way to achieve higher load factors with little or no incremental system cost. Load reduction or peak shaving programs generally involve interruption capability in exchange for reduced rates to customers that possess alternative fuel use capability. The goals for each of these load shape objectives are as follows

1725 Cetane number and cetane improvers

Fig. 17.13 Combustion sequences photographed through a quartz window in the piston crown of an engine running on (top) a commercially available alternative fuel and (bottom) Shell Advanced Diesel. The two part circles are the inlet and exhaust valve heads and the bright spot to the left of the cylinder is an illuminated pointer over degree markings on the flywheel, which are too small to be visually identifiable here

Nonpetroleum Liquid Fuels

Coal-tar fuels are high-boiling fractions of crude tar from pyrolysis in coke ovens and coal retorts. Grades range from free-flowing liquids to pulverizable pitch. Low in sulfur and ash, they contain hydrocarbons, phenols, and heterocyclic nitrogen and oxygen compounds. Being more aromatic than petroleum fuels, they burn with a more luminous flame. From 288 to 477 K (60 to 400 F) properties include

11262 Process Modification

The primary process modification strategy to minimize CO2 emissions is reduced combustion of fossil fuels. Reduced fuel burning is advocated for many reasons, not just CO2 emission reductions. There are other pollutants like CO and NOx that are also reduced if less fossil fuel is consumed. Reserves of important fuels like natural gas and oil continue to dwindle, so reducing fuel consumption will help conserve these limited resources. The problem is that demand for energy continues to rise around the world. Therefore, fuel conservation would make other energy sources, particularly renewable sources like solar, wind, and hydroelectric energy, more attractive and cost competitive as usage increases. More research is likely to be funded for these alternative sources if fossil fuel use is restricted. In some countries, particularly in Europe, CO2 emissions are being reduced by taxing fuels containing carbon. This is commonly referred to as a carbon tax. Another indirect method of reducing...

CO and Hcvoc Controls

Control technologies for stationary sources include improved combustion control, capture systems that reuse CO-rich exhaust gases as fuel, and afterburners or oxidation catalysts to destroy CO in exhaust streams. Fuel switching to cleaner fuels, notably natural gas, is also a commonly used option for stationary sources. Industrial VOC emissions are dominated by three types of sources 1) incomplete combustion of fossil fuels 2) solvent emissions resulting from coating and printing and 3) organic emissions resulting from the handling and manufacture of petroleum products, chemicals, and chemically derived products. While all combustion sources may emit some VOC emissions as a result of incomplete combustion, internal combustion engines typically have the highest VOC levels and are, therefore, a primary focus of VOC control efforts. For the purpose of the discussion on emissions resulting from fossil fuel emissions, VOCs are addressed as HCs. To some extent, NOx control methods can have...

872Process Modification

There are several strategies related to process modification to reduce or eliminate SOx emissions. One strategy is to use an alternative method of generating the energy needed to process the materials. A common alternative is to use electrical energy instead of burning a fossil fuel. An example of a common industrial heating process used to make steel from scrap metal is known as an electric arc furnace or EAF (see Chap. 13). In an EAF, three graphite electrodes arranged in a triangle are inserted into a vessel containing a load of scrap metal. A very high voltage is applied which arcs between the electrodes through the scrap metal causing it to melt. The appropriate chemicals are added to the molten bath to produce the desired grade of steel. While electricity is often much more expensive than fossil fuels, the heating efficiency of the EAF is high, which makes it economical. However, this particular alternative is only a possibility for materials that are electrically conductive,...

World Energy Consumption of Renewable Energy

Renewable energy use will be constrained by its higher fuel and capital costs and moderate fossil fuel prices. Emissions legislation, renewable energy portfolios, and tax incentives subsidies in the industrialized countries will increase the use of renewable energy for power generation and industrial applications for chemicals and fuel production however, renewable energy will make only a minor contribution to the overall energy mix due to its higher fuel and equipment costs. As the hydrogen economy grows, it too has the potential to increase the use of renewable energy. This technology, however, is still in its infancy, and the production of hydrogen, which is currently made predominantly from fossil fuels (i.e., mainly natural gas), would need to rely on other sources to impact fossil fuel consumption. In fact, as the hydrogen economy grows, gasification of coal may become the leading source of hydrogen. Details of the gasification technology are provided in Chapter 5 (Technologies...

Coals Role in Providing United States Energy Security

America's economic engine is fueled primarily by fossil fuels, a trend that is expected to continue for several decades. Coal, oil, and natural gas supplied 85 of the nation's total energy, 69 of its electricity, and nearly all of its transportation fuels in 2002 1 . The contribution of fossil fuels to the U.S. energy supply is expected to increase the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) forecasts that fossil fuels will be supplying 90 of the nation's energy by 2020 because of projected growth in natural gas consumption. Of the 97 quadrillion Btu of energy consumed in the United States in 2002, 23 (22.18 quadrillion Btu) was attributed to coal, while natural gas, petroleum, nuclear power, and renewable energy consumption was 24, 39, 8, and 6 , respectively 1 . The important role of fossil fuels, in general, and coal, in particular, in the U.S. energy picture is further illustrated in Figure 8-1, which depicts the contribution of coal to the various end-use sectors transportation,...

682 Process Modification

One process modification that is sometimes used to minimize or eliminate NOx emissions is to replace some or all of the fossil-fuel-fired energy with electrical energy. The electrical energy produces no NOx emissions at the point of use and moves the emissions to the power plant. In general, the resulting NOx emissions at the power plant are often lower than at an industrial site because of the strict limits imposed on the plant and the various methods employed to minimize NOx that are often more cost effective on a unit mass basis because of the economies of scale. There are a number of potential problems with this method. The first is that the economics are usually very unfavorable when replacing fossil fuels with electrical energy. In most hydrocarbon and petrochemical processes, the fuel used in the heaters is a by-product that is available at little or no cost. On the other hand, electrical energy is often much more expensive than even purchased fossil fuels like natural gas or...

Natural Gas Use in Power Generation

Natural gas is a premium fossil fuel that is easily transported, can be used in many applications, often is the least expensive option from a capital investment viewpoint, and burns with low levels of emissions. Of the fossil fuels, natural gas releases the lowest quantity of carbon dioxide per million Btu of energy consumed. For these reasons, natural gas has become a popular choice among the residential, commercial, industrial, and electricity generation sectors and is also becoming increasingly popular in compressed natural gas vehicles.

105 Alternative and Sustainable Energy Used via the Grid

There is no reason at all why alternative sustainable forms of energy such as solar, wind, hydro, tidal, wave, biomass, waste and energy taken from under sea currents should not be used to provide energy to electric vehicles via the grid. In some ways this is a much better option than powering electric vehicles directly from small wind generators and solar panels, where the energy is wasted when the vehicle is not directly charging. With the grid the energy can be transferred from one use to another. When electricity is not being supplied to one consumer it will be supplied to another. When there is ample electricity from alternative sources it will be used, fossil-fuelled generators being switched off to save fuel. When there is less alternative energy the fossil-fuelled generators will be used, the customer not experiencing any break in supply during periods of little sun, wind or tide. Also, the grid allows electric vehicles to be supplied with energy from all available energy...

611 Technology Development and Barriers

Fuel cells have been shown to provide electricity from both hydrogen and fossil fuels at efficiencies greater than any other electric generating device. Emissions from fuel cells have been shown to be near zero for most pollutants of concern (e.g., NOx, SOx, CO, and hydrocarbons) depending upon the specific fuel cell technology and application. Fuel cells are scalable down to very small sizes while maintaining extraordinary fuel efficiency and environmental sensitivity. So why are fuel cells not playing a major role in today's market, and why do some experts not expect them to become widely utilized until at least ten years from now There are several reasons, each of which is a critical and current area of research, development, and demonstration for fuel cell technologies.

Gaseous Emission Control

This section presents some options for reducing the emission of pollutants. It focuses on the complex series of processes and phenomena generally grouped under acid rain. Acid rain is associated with the release of sulphur and nitrogen oxides into atmosphere via the burning of fossil fuels. The deposition of sulfur and nitrogen compounds is one of the most pressing large-scale air pollution problems.

92 Historical Highlights

State regulators were not alone in response to the utilities' problems. Social and political pressure focused federal attention on energy policy. The Carter Administration encouraged, and Congress passed, a series of electric power reforms in 1978. These changes included requirements that state regulators examine their rate structures to ensure that they did not result in energy waste. Of greatest importance to this chapter, in 1978 Congress passed the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA),* which contained a provision (Section 210,17 c (1)) requiring investor-owned utilities to interconnect with smaller systems (typically combustion-turbine plants) owned by independent power producers (IPPs). The law created qualifying cogeneration facilities, which produce heat and electricity from fossil fuels. Such facilities would need to meet guidelines, to be determined by the FERC, regarding energy efficiency, types of fuel used, reliability, and other characteristics. These...

Design and Provisions for Refuse Wood Biomass and ByProduct Fuel Boilers

As discussed in Chapter 5, a wide range of gaseous, liquid, and solid by-product, refuse, and biomass fuel sources can be productively used. These fuels may be burned in conjunction with conventional fossil fuels or independently to produce hot water or steam. Many gaseous and liquid recovery type fuels can be burned in standard or modified versions of the same conventional boilers (i.e., front-fired and tangential-fired) used for natural gas and fuel oil combustion. Solid refuse and biomass boilers are generally similar to those used for coal burning. These may be spreader stoker-fired, suspension-fired, or a combination of both. Other combustion system designs

64 Energy from Nuclear Fuels

In other words, 1.3 g of fuel is used per megawatt-day of useful thermal energy released. In a typical reactor, which produces 3000 MW of thermal power, the U-235 fuel consumption is about 4 kg day. To produce the same energy by the use of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, or gas, millions of times as much weight would be required.

276 Research and Development

The oil embargo of 1973, in which limits were placed on shipments from producing countries to consuming countries, had a sobering effect on the world. It prompted a flurry of activity aimed at expanding the use of alternative energy sources such as solar, wind, biomass, and oil shale, along with conservation. Easing of the energy crisis reduced the pressure to find substitutes, and as oil prices fell automobile travel increased. Use of energy in general is dominated by current economics. If prices are high, energy is used sparingly if prices are low, it is used freely without concern for the future. Ultimately, however, when the resource becomes more and more scarce and expensive its use must be curtailed to such an extent that social benefits are reduced. If no new sources are found, or if no renewable sources are available, the quality of existence regresses and man is brought back to a primitive condition. The use of fossil fuels over the long term is dramatically portrayed by the...

86 Measurement Techniques

EPA Method 6 provides procedures for measuring SO2 emissions from stationary sources where the gas sample is extracted from the exhaust stack 12 . Ammonia, water-soluble cations, and fluorides cause interferences with SOx measurements. Method 6A concerns SO2, moisture, and CO2 measurements from fossil-fuel combustion sources by chemically separating the SO2 and CO2 components where different reagent chemicals are used. Method 6C discusses the use of instrument analyzers to measure SO2 emissions from stationary sources. This is the most commonly used method in industrial combustion processes. These analyzers typically use ultraviolet (UV), nondispersive infrared (NDIR), or fluorescence techniques. A schematic of an accepted sampling system is shown in Fig. 5.21.

513 Sustainable development

The concept is to encourage those activities which ascend the Hierarchy. The top of the Hierarchy is 'Reduce'. This is the only option which does not use up initial resources such as raw materials and energy from fossil fuels to make the product or supply the service in the first place. In sophisticated applications the Waste Management Hierarchy is applied to all stages of a product cycle as illustrated in Figure 5.1.2. conserves fossil fuels may require high technology

814 Quantifying Waste Heat

The quality of waste heat can be roughly characterized in terms of the temperature of the waste stream. The higher the temperature, the more available the waste heat for substitution for purchased energy. The primary source of energy used in industrial plants are the combustion of fossil fuels and nuclear reaction, both occurring at temperatures approaching 3000 F. Waste heat, of any quantity, is ordinarily of little use at temperatures approaching ambient, although the use of a heat pump can improve the quality of waste heat economically over a limited range of temperatures near

Gasification and the Future

The future of gasification is intimately intertwined with the future of energy and energy policy. It is generally recognized that human development cannot continue to base its economy on fossil fuels in the present manner forever, even if viewpoints on the timescale do diverge, sometimes dramatically. This viewpoint is put most strongly by the advocates of what is called the hydrogen economy. There is no doubt that the use of hydrogen in combination with fuel cells as a transport fuel will improve the microclimate of our conurbations significantly through the elimination of CO2, NOx, CO, and hydrocarbon emissions from motor vehicles. And this is a prospect that could become reality within the next 20 years. However, it is our opinion that those proponents, who present the hydrogen economy as a solution to the CO2 emissions or greenhouse gas issue, overstate their case. The hydrogen that we will use in our fuel cells is not ready and waiting for us to collect. It is chemically locked...

12413Energy from mixed plastics

As mentioned earlier, another approach to recycling of mixed plastics is to use thermal processing to convert the plastics to a mixture of gases and liquids which can serve as a fuel or to use the plastics in unprocessed form as a fuel source. As noted, many do not consider these applications to be true recycling, while others argue that the replacement of fossil fuels with waste plastics does generate value from the plastic materials and so should be counted.

1126Control Strategies

Most of the abatement and control strategies for CO2 involve either improving the thermal efficiency of the combustion system so that less fuel needs to be consumed for a given level of production, or to sequester the resulting CO2 in some form so that it does not contribute to the growing increase in CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. A key factor when improving thermal efficiency is to ensure that there is an overall reduction in fossil-fuel energy consumption. For example, if some fossil fuel is replaced by electrical energy, there may not be an overall fuel savings as fuel must be burned at the power plant to generate the electricity. The methods to control CO2 from combustion fall into the following broad categories 16

164 Refusederived Fuel

Typical composition of solid waste is shown in Table 16.4. It can be seen that more than 70 by weight is combustible. More important, more than 90 of the volume of typical solid waste can be eliminated by combustion. Burning waste as fuel has the advantage of not only replacing scarce fossil fuels but also greatly reducing the problem of waste disposal.

1041 The electric power system

Figure 10.6 is a diagrammatic representation of a typical modern electric power system. The electrical power is generated by large central generating sets and is then fed into an interconnected high-voltage transmission system. The generating units may be fossil-fuel, nuclear or hydro sets and will have capacities of up to

35Pure waters in the pharmaceutical industry

On a global basis, it has been estimated that about 10 000 GWofnew electrical generating capacity will be required by 2050 (Powicki, 2002). Fresh water is an essential resource for the production of electricity, as it is needed for high-purity steam, condensate cooling, and miscellaneous operations including dust suppression. While the net water requirements depend on the distribution of energy sources (nuclear, fossil fuel, waste-to-energy, hydropower, solar, wind, etc.), it is obvious that energy production is dependent on water availability. In addition to projected increases in energy and associated water requirements, liquid discharges from industrial water users are subjected to increasingly stringent requirements in many locations. In the future, it is likely that many thermoelectric power generation facilities will be required to comply with so-called zero liquid discharge (ZLD) requirements to meet long-term watershed

Gaseous and Liquid Fuels

Specially designed recovery-type boilers. A wide variety of liquors (e.g., sodium, calcium, magnesium, ammonium, etc.) are burned in recovery furnaces. Recovery boilers are designed to allow for the recovery of valuable chemicals that can be recycled and the generation of usable thermal output, while operating in an environmentally responsible manner. Unlike the firing of conventional fossil fuels, recovery boiler combustion goes through several distinct stages.

Process And Instrumentation Diagrams

Scientific Apparatus Manufacturers Association (SAMA). The fossil-fuel electric utility industry generally follows this standard. Both organizations update their standards from time to time, primarily because the continuing evolutions in control-system hardware provide additional possibilities for implementing control schemes.

Tropospheric OzoneA Special Problem

The most widespread air quality problem in the United States is exceedances of the ozone standard (0.12 ppm for 1 hr per year) in urban areas. The ozone standard is based on protecting public health. Ozone is produced when its precursors, VOCs and nitrogen oxides (NOx), combine in the presence of sunlight (Office of Technology Assessment 1989). VOCs, a broad class of pollutants encompassing hundreds of specific compounds, come from manmade sources including automobile and truck exhaust, evaporation of solvents and gasoline, chemical manufacturing, and petroleum refining. In most urban areas, such man-made sources account for the majority of VOC emissions, but in the summer in some regions, natural vegetation produces an almost equal quantity. NOx arises primarily from fossil fuel combustion. Major sources include highway vehicles and utility and industrial boilers.

SO2 Control Technologies

Under atmospheric conditions, SO2 is a reactive acrid gas, which can be rapidly assimilated back to the environment. However, the combustion of fossil fuels, notably coal and oil containing sulfur, in which large quantities of SO2 are emitted at point source locations, results in environmental damage. In addition to power plant operation, certain industrial operations (refineries and smelters) can also be significant sources of SO2 emissions.

48 Fuelcell vehicles and infrastructure

Fuel cells are preferred as a primary traction power source because theoretical stack efficiency on the Carnot cycle is 83 , which is more than double that of the thermal engine, and unlike the thermal engine they become more efficient (90 ) at light load operation. Stack EMF drops from 1 V at no load to 0.6 V at full load stack efficicency thus increases at light load since auxiliary losses do not go down in the same proportion. Whether hydrogen is reformed from fossil fuels on board the vehicle (Fig. 4.8), as an interim approach to carrying compressed liquid hydrogen, is still under debate. This approach is being championed by Chrysler and is attractive in America where gasoline is sold at a subsidized price. Even with this technique overall efficiency is much higher than with a thermal engine. However, the heavy on-cost to the vehicle makes it no more than a transitory solution. The military have used hydrogen propulsion for nuclear submarines, space-craft and specialized assault...

Renewable and Alternative Electric Generation Options

Conventional technology application options and certain others are being made cost-competitive with financial support from various federal and state agencies and local utilities. The renewable technology options, namely those that use geothermal, wind, water, and solar energy sources, have no fuel-cost component. Given the recent rise in world energy costs, following a long period of flat and even declining prices, life-cycle costs of renewables have improved relative to traditional fossil fuel-driven applications. Still, in some cases, this is not sufficient to overcome high initial capital and or ongoing operations and maintenance cost premiums. of extremely high fluid temperatures sufficient to produce high-pressure steam. Figure 23-18 is a process-flow diagram that is representative of most parabolic trough solar electric generation plants currently in operation. The collector field features several parallel rows of single-axis (east-to-west) tracking parabolic trough collectors...

Availability and Reliability

Energy source interruption can result from market curtailments (e.g., interruptible natural gas service contracts), delivery system physical failure or a variety of force majeure conditions. With certain renewable resources, availability is limited due to dependence on energy sources subject to variation (e.g., sun and wind) as opposed to easily stored and metered fossil fuels. For example, with PVs and solar thermal steam generator systems, availability is limited to about 25 or 35 , regardless of equipment reliability, even in the most optimal solar energy locations. With WECS, availability can be much higher, but can still be subject to wide variability and unpredictability of prevailing wind speeds. Hydropower plants may have very high availability, but, like wind, can vary depending on site-specific factors, such as seasonal or daily water level variations.

154 Reactor Research and Development

On the basis of the initial success of the PWR and BWR, and with the application of commercial design and construction know-how, Westinghouse and General Electric were able, in the early 1960s, to advertise large-scale nuclear plants of power around 500 MWe that would be competitive with fossil fuel plants in the cost of electricity. Immediately thereafter, there was a rapid move on the part of the electric utilities to order nuclear plants, and the growth in the late 1960s was phenomenal. Orders for nuclear steam supply systems for the years 1965-1970 inclusive amounted to around 88 thousand MWe, which was more than a third of all orders, including fossil fueled plants. The corresponding nuclear electric capacity was around a quarter of the total United States capacity at the end of the period of rapid growth.

115 Reactor Operation

The reactor is brought to full power and operating temperature and pressure by means of rod position adjustments. Then, as the reactor operates and fuel begins to burn out, the concentration of boron is reduced. By the end of the cycle, the extra fuel is gone, all of the available control absorption has been removed, and the reactor is shut down for refueling. The trends in fuel and boron are shown in Fig. 11.6, neglecting the effects of certain fission product absorption and plutonium production. The graph represents a case in which the power is kept constant. The fuel content thus linearly decreases with time. Such operation characterizes a reactor that provides a base load in an electrical generating system that also includes fossil fuel plants and hydroelectric stations.

132 Ferrous Metal Production

There are many processes in the iron and steel industries that use large quantities of fossil-fuel energy. Examples include the blast furnace, the open-hearth furnace, and the basic oxygen furnace (BOF). However, these processes do not use burners. The combustion occurs inside the vessels in conjunction with processing the materials inside where the fuel may consist of coal or coke mixed with the raw materials. Therefore, these processes are not considered here as they are not industrial combustion processes in the sense of the definition used in this book. Although a furnace like the electric arc furnace, which is discussed next, uses electricity as the primary energy source, it also often uses supplemental burners and is, therefore, considered here. Lehrman et al. 6 list the following applications in steel mills that use gaseous fuels coke-oven heating, blast-furnace stoves, gas turbines for power generation, boilers, soaking pits, reheating furnaces, forge and...

663 Fuel Cell Stack Fuels

All fuel cells prefer hydrogen as the primary fuel. Methanol can be used directly in a certain type of PEMFC called a direct methanol fuel cell. Carbon monoxide is a poison for lower temperature fuel cells but is used as a fuel in the high temperature fuel cells (e.g., SOFC and MCFC). CO may not actually react electrochemically within these cells. It is commonly understood that CO is consumed in the gas phase through the water-gas shift reaction as follows

39 Nanotubes As Templates

Several procedures have been used to decorate acid-treated NTs with nanoscale clusters of Ag, Au, Pt, and Pd. For instance, Satishkumar et al.677 carried out the refluxing with HAuCl4 and HNO3 or tetrakis hydroxymethyl phosphonium chloride, with H2PtCl6 and HNO3 or ethylene glycol, and with AgNO3 and HNO3 Li et al.678 refluxed NTs for 6 h with H2PtCl6 dissolved in ethylene glycol. The activity of Pt cathode catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells has been shown to be dependent on

273 Damage Failures and Loss of Durability

Visible crack in a cooling tower shell is an indication of deterioration of its safety, reliability, and durability. Corrosion of concrete with low resistance to SOx and NOx contents in the air around fossil fuel plants adds severely to this degradation. It is thus imperative to conform to a design and construction concept that guarantees sufficiently safe and reliable structures over a predetermined lifetime.

1730 Antifoamants and reodorants

Fig. 17.18 Specimens subjected to the ASTM D.665A corrosion test (top) with Shell Advanced Diesel and (below) in a commercially available alternative fuel Fig. 17.18 Specimens subjected to the ASTM D.665A corrosion test (top) with Shell Advanced Diesel and (below) in a commercially available alternative fuel

Alcohol And Biological Markers Of Alcohol Abuse Gas Chromatography

Temperature-dependent, needing oxygen from oxy-haemoglobin), the growth of microorganisms metabolizing ethanol (inhibited by sodium fluoride at > 0.5 , w v) and diffusion from containers owing to closure failure. A further potentially interfering factor, especially in autopsy cases, is ethanol production in (postmortem) tissues by bacteria and yeasts. Freezing seems to be the best precaution in order to maintain the original alcohol levels.

Wind Energy Conversion Systems

During the 1980s, wind-energy conversion systems (WECS), as they became known, experienced a resurgence due to public policy encouragement through tax incentives and other subsidies, environmental regulations that limited the use of fossil fuel, and the expected long-term trend of rising energy prices. In the United States, most notably California, there was a tremendous surge of investment in wind turbine applications during that period. A decade later, this was followed by market stagnation. The emerging utility industry deregulation left great uncertainty in the market, and projections of stable or even falling electric rates furthered the stagnation. in permitting new fossil fuel plants, and increased public support for green power. This sharp rise is consistent with worldwide increases in wind power project development.

134 Breeding and Uranium Resources

There is considerable sentiment in the nuclear community for storing spent fuel from converter reactors rather than burying it as a waste, in anticipation of an energy shortage in the future as fossil fuels become depleted. If such a policy were adopted, the plutonium contained in the spent fuel could be recovered in a leisurely manner. The plutonium would provide the initial loading of a new generation of fast breeder reactors and the recovered uranium would serve as blanket material.

Raymond Farnell and Duncan Riding

Roger Richards is Principal Engineer with Ricardo Consulting Engineers. He has worked on various engine areas, from Stirling engines through alternative fuels and artificial intelligence applied to condition monitoring. He is responsible for the development of novel techniques for improving efficiencies and emissions of large engines.

Design and Provisions for Solid Refuse Wood and Biomass Fuel Boilers

Babcock And Wilcox Boiler Block Diagram

For use of solid refuse, wood, and biomass fuels, boiler component design varies considerably from traditional fossil fuel units, but is generally more similar to systems designed for coal than for gas or oil. Similar to coal units, they are larger, more costly, and more maintenance intensive than standard gas or oil burning units. Provisions for fuel handling, combustion, emissions control, and disposal are key design considerations with these fuels. The wide variation in energy density and moisture content requires careful design consideration and there is generally a need to modify heat transfer surfaces to suit the intended fuel composition. The RDF is generally burned partially in suspension and partially on a stoker. In large boilers typically used for power generation plants, more finely shredded prepared refuse (largely consisting of light plastics and paper) can also be fired in suspension to supplement conventional fuels. In dedicated RDF-fired boilers, RDF may be used...

02 Design theory and practice

The 'physical' design package for an electric vehicle will result from a much larger 'design package of affecting factors' which encompasses vehicle operational category, manufacturing systems techniques, marketing and distribution. Packages for industrial trucks and specialist delivery vehicles are already established but those for passenger-car variants much less so. It has been suggested that the first substantial sales of electric cars might well be to electricity generating companies in the public utilities sector, who would rent them to railway operators for end-use by rail travellers. Such people would purchase their hire with return travel tickets to destination stations at which EVs would be parked in forecourts for the use of travellers. Other potential customers might be city-centre car hire fleets, taxicab operators in fossil-fuel exhaust-free zones or local authorities setting up city-centre car pools.

49 The PNGV programme impetus for change

Such advances are aimed at more efficient energy conversion power sources, viable hybrid concepts as well as lighter weight and more efficient vehicle designs. The contributions of US government agencies include the following at its ten National Laboratories, the Department of Energy has technical expertise, facilities, and resources that can help achieve the goals of the partnership. Examples include research programmes in advanced engine technologies such as gas turbines, hybrid vehicles, alternative fuels, fuel cells, advanced energy storage, and lightweight materials. The DOE's efforts are implemented through cost-shared contracts and cooperative agreements with the auto industry, suppliers, and others. Technologies covered include fuel cells, hybrid vehicles, gas turbines, energy storage materials and others. The Department of Defense's Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) is focused on medium-duty and heavy-duty drivetrains for military vehicles which could, in the future,...

Expenditures For Gasoline

The DOE Heat Engine Propulsion Program is divided into two major program areas- Engine Systems Development and Engine Technology Development. Three sub-programs - the Automotive Gas Turbine, the Automotive Stirling and the Advanced Heavy Duty Diesel - are included in the Engine Systems Development Program. The Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engine Program and the Alternative Fuels Utilization Program are elements of the Engine Technology Development Program. Funding for the total Heat Engine Propulsion Program in FY 1987 was approximately 40 million. The Automotive Gas Turbine (AGT) program was conceived with the goals of achieving a 30 percent improvement in fuel economy over contemporary spark ignition engined automobiles of equal performance and curb weight, improving the environment through lower CO and HC emissions and providing enhanced alternative fuel capability. To achieve these goals a proof-of-concept approach with experimental engines was taken with two industry...

Blackbody temperature

Blackbody temperature thermo The temperature of a blackbody that emits the same amount of heat radiation per unit area as a given object measured by a total radiation pyrometer. Also known as brightness temperature. 'blakjbad-e .tem-prs-chsr black box eng Any component, usually electronic and having known input and output, that can be readily inserted into or removed from a specific place in a larger system without knowledge of the component's detailed internal structure. 'blak .baks black-bulb thermometer eng A thermometer whose sensitive element has been made to approximate a blackbody by covering it with lampblack. 'blak .bslb thsr'mam-sd-sr blacksmoke eng Asmokethat has manypar-ticulates in it from inefficient combustion comes from burning fossil fuel, either coal or oil. blak 'smok black-surface enclosure thermo An enclosure for which the interior surfaces of the walls possess the radiation characteristics of a black-body. 'blak .ssr-fss in'klozh-sr blacktop paver mech eng A...

1331 Aluminum Production

Primary production of aluminum involves the refining of alumina from bauxite ore followed by electrolysis or smelting of the alumina. This is typically done by the Hall-Heroult process, which is very energy intensive. This process is not considered here as it does not involve a traditional combustion system with fossil-fuel-fired burners. Secondary production of aluminum involves recovering aluminum from recycled aluminum products and scrap aluminum. Secondary production is far less

213 Natural Gas As A Fuel

Natural gas is the nation's second largest source of fuel and a major source of feedstock for chemical production. Plentiful supplies at economically satisfactory prices, a well developed delivery system of pipelines to bring gas from the wellhead to the consumer, and its environmental attractiveness has made natural gas the choice of fuel for many applications. Going into the new millennium, natural gas will be a popular fuel. As a fuel for industry for heating and generating electricity and as a feedstock for chemicals, natural gas is very attractive. For residential and commercial applications, the security of supply and efficiency in supplying makes it an ideal fuel. Even though natural gas is a fossil fuel, it has the lowest ratio of combustion-produced carbon dioxide to energy released. Carbon dioxide is the biggest culprit in the concern for global warming.

963 Support mechanisms for wind energy

The general effect of this type of premium tariffs is to provide very considerable stimulus to the development of wind power. However, this form of support may not apply strong downward pressure on wind farm costs. Hence, the price paid per kWh in Germany in 2000 was approximately double that available under the last round of the Non Fossil Fuel Obligation in the UK which was based on an auction of renewable contracts. However, it should be noted that the UK sites generally had higher wind speeds than many of those in Germany. It is difficult to reconcile the concept of fixed premium tariffs with that of a deregulated market for electrical energy and so this form of support may not be acceptable to European Union competition authorities in the long term. incurred in bidding which may be wasted if the bid is unsuccessful and (3) there is little penalty on not constructing the projects and so some bids may be unrealisti-cally low. The UK Non Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO) was remarkable...

Introduction To Electric Vehicle Batteries

In the early part of 1900s, the EV design could not compete with the plethora of inventions for the internal combustion engine. The speed and range of the internal combustion engines made them an efficient solution for transportation. By the middle of the 1900s, discussions about the impending oil supplies, the growing demands of fossil fuels began to rekindle the inventions of alternate energy systems and discovery of alternate energy sources. By the mid-1970s, oil shortages led to aggressive development of EV programs. However, a temporarily stable oil supply thereafter and a rather slow advancement in In the 1990s, concerns both over the worldwide growth of demand for fossil fuels for transportation, namely petroleum and the reduction of vehicle emissions has once again intensified EV development. This in turn has led to advances in research and development of traction batteries for EVs.

Discovery Of Methanol Electrooxidation Catalysts By Combinatorial Analysis

Hydrogen fuel cclls are likely to become a major energy source in the next century, but they are not ideal for all applications. A safe alternative fuel with a high energy density will be necessary for transportation and mobile applications. Direct mcthanol-air fuel cells (DMFCs) arc an attractive alternative to hydrogen fuel cclls bccause of the high energy density and low cost of methanol as a fuel 1 , However, in order for DMFCs to become commercially viable, better clcctrocatalysts for the anode reaction need to be developed.

103 Vehicles Pollution a Quantitative Analysis

Energy for electric vehicles clearly has to come from somewhere. If battery electric vehicles are widely introduced the vast majority will have to be charged from the mains grid, where at present most electricity production comes from burning fossil fuels. At present sustainable sources of energy currently provide less than 10 of the energy used in the grid, so most of the electricity used for charging electric vehicles would be obtained from burning fossil fuels, including coal, gas and oil, at the power stations. Conversion efficiency (energy at power station outlet calorific value of fuel) for producing electricity from fossil fuels at modern power stations is typically about 45 , much higher than motor-car engines. However, this has to be transmitted to the consumer and the average transmission efficiency, including transmission through the low voltage local networks, is around 90 . This means that the actual efficiency of converting the chemical energy of fuel at the power...

40 Ultimate Disposal ULT

A 6 ash coal is the source of fossil fuel at a local utility. The average coal feed rate to the boiler is approximately 28,000 lb h. Estimate the amount of ash that must be disposed of for the following percentages of ash in the coal that flies, i.e., leaves the boiler with the gas. 1. Use an alternative fuel rather than coal.

1042 Embedded generation

CHP plants operate at very high overall thermal efficiencies and so reduce the total fossil-fuel consumed and hence the gaseous emissions. In addition to the existing commercially available technologies there are major development efforts in very small CHP generators for domestic use and also in the application of fuel cells.

Control of Nitrogen Oxides

Wet scrubbers absorb N02 as well as S02, but are usually not installed primarily for N02 control. An effective method often used on fossil fuel burning power plants is off-stoichiometric burning. This method controls NO formation by limiting the amount of air (or oxygen) in the combustion process to just a bit more than is needed to burn the hydrocarbon fuel in question. For example, the reaction for burning natural gas

61 Nuclear Power Reactors

The basic requirements of a reactor are 1) fissionable material in a geometry that inhibits the escape of neutrons, 2) a high likelihood that neutron capture causes fission, 3) control of the neutron production to prevent a runaway reaction, and 4) removal of the heat generated in operation and after shutdown. The inability to completely turnoff the heat evolution when the chain reaction stops is a safety problem that distinguishes a nuclear reactor from a fossil-fuel burning power plant.

Renewable Alternative Power Technologies

This chapter presents informationonthree renewable technology applications hydro,wind,andphotovoltaic. A fourth technology in this chapteristhefuelcell. While they involve the use of a renewableenergysource(hydro-gen), fuel cells currently mustbepowered byconventional fossil fuel sources such as natural gas to generate the hydrogen. While this does notsatisfythedefinitionof a renewable technology, it is oftencategorizedwith renewable sources of clean or greenpower,sinceitproduces such low levels of pollution relative to other fossil fuel powered technologies.

793 Carburization Metal Dusting

Besides oxygen attack, high-temperature alloys are frequently subjected to attack by carbon. Gaseous environments generated by many high-temperature industrial processes, particularly in the petrochemical refinery industries, in the conversion of fossil fuels and in certain heat treatment operations, frequently contain gases with carbon activities of up to 1. In other cases, such as in ammonia or methanol synthesis, carbon activities can be much higher than 1. The degradation of metallic systems in carburizing environments can take two forms, namely carburization and metal dusting (sometimes referred to as catastrophic carburization). Due to the very low solubility of carbon in nickel, materials with high nickel content are considered beneficial for imparting carburization resistance. Alloys high in chromium, aluminum, and silicon may form protective oxide layers, which prevents the ingress of carbonaceous corrosive species thus providing improved resistance. However, if alternating...

Steam Power Plant Pumping Services

Pumps are very important components of a steam electric power plant. The major applications are the condensate, boiler-feed, heater drain, and condenser circulating pumps. The all-inclusive category of miscellaneous pumps includes such a variety of services that it merits being broken down into its components and included in a representative listing. Table 1 provides such a listing for conventional (fossil fuel) steam power plants. The list is not necessarily complete but is reasonably representative.

The Potential of Coal to Reduce US Dependency on Imported Crude

While the price of crude oil may be influenced by global events, the goal of reducing the total amount of imported crude oil should be pursued. Approximately two-thirds of the petroleum consumed in the United States is in the transportation sector, with another 25 being consumed in the industrial sector. Reducing the reliance of the transportation sector on oil is clearly a key to improving energy security. Options to lessen the dependency on imported crude oil include improving vehicle fuel efficiency and diversifying the feedstocks to produce transportation fuels, transportation fuel additives, and liquid fuels feedstocks to the industrial sector. Feedstock diversification can be achieved by using biomass and coal. Utilizing biomass for producing biofuels and additives is important and should be pursued however, coal can provide the greatest and quickest impact in reducing dependence on imported crude oil due to the vast coal resources and proven technological capability to produce...

Vision 21 Technologies

Vision 21 energy plants will utilize a modular design philosophy and will comprise technology modules selected and configured to produce the desired products from the feedstocks, which would include fossil fuels combined with opportunity feedstocks, such as biomass, when appropriate. The configuration of the complete plant, feedstocks, products, environmental controls, and plant size will be site specific and determined by prevailing market and economic conditions. The technology modules will be based on key technologies including

15 Electrochemical Applications

Electrochemical reactions are relevant not only to corrosion, but also to batteries, fuel cells, and industrial processes (such as the reduction of Al2O3 to make Al) that make use of electrochemical reactions. The burning of fossil fuels such as coal and gasoline causes pollution of the environment. In contrast, batteries and fuel cells cause fewer environmental problems.

512 Environmental predictions

The Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)2 is a body set up to study the environment which produces data to assist international policy development on global warming. The data are collected from such organisations as the World Meteorological Organisation3 which has air pollution stations in such remote places as Cape Grim, Tasmania, Australia, Barrow in Alaska, and Ushuaia near Cape Hope, to name but a few. These stations measure temperature, airflow, and the composition of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide. Their data, from the purest sea air in these remote locations, shows that carbon dioxide levels have risen 10 over the last 20 years. The IPPC has also provided data from air bubbles trapped in samples brought up from undersea bore holes in the Antarctic and Greenland. It shows the amount of carbon dioxide now in the air is the highest it has been for the past 400 000 years. The effect of the increasing carbon dioxide levels is to raise...

11 Industrial Combustion

Combustion has been the foundation of worldwide industrial development for the past 200 years 1 . Industry relies heavily on the combustion process as shown in Table 1.1. The major uses for combustion in industry are shown in Table 1.2. Hewitt et al. 2 have listed some of the common heating applications used in industry, as shown in Table 1.3. Typical industrial combustion applications can also be characterized by their temperature ranges, as shown in Fig. 1.1. As can be seen in Fig. 1.2, the demand for energy is expected to continue to increase rapidly. Most of the energy (88 ) is produced by the combustion of fossil fuels like oil, natural gas, and coal. According to the U.S. Department of Energy, the demand in the industrial sector is projected to increase by 0.8 per year to the year 2020 3 .

Brief History of Carbonization High Temperature

The carbonization of coal has its historical roots in the iron and steel industry. The ironmaking processes developed around the Mediterranean Sea and spread northward through Europe 33 . The Phoenicians, Celts, and Romans all helped spread ironmaking technology, and the Romans brought one of the ironmaking techniques as far north as Great Britain. Originally, charcoal produced from wood was the fuel used to melt the iron ore, and a tremendous amount of wood was needed for this industry. For example, one type of furnace (the Stuckofen) used in fourteenth-century Germany could produce 4000 lb of iron per day with a fuel rate of 250 lb of charcoal per 100 lb of iron produced 33 . This was an early version of the charcoal blast furnace, and these furnaces that developed in Continental Europe soon spread to Great Britain. By 1615, there were 800 furnaces, forges, or iron mills in Great Britain, 300 of them blast furnaces. The rate of growth in the number of these furnaces was so great...

1 Electric Vehicle Batteries

Electrification of our energy economy and the rise of automotive transportation are two of the most significant technological revolutions of the twentieth century. Exemplifying this massive change in the lifestyle due to growth in fossil energy supplies. From negligible energy markets in the 1900, electrical generation now accounts for 34 of the primary energy consumption in the United States, while transportation consumes 27 of the energy supply. Increased fossil fuel use has financed energy expansions coal and natural gas provide more than 65 of the energy used to generate the nation's electricity, while refined crude oil fuels virtually all the 250 million vehicles now cruising the U.S. roadways. Renewable energy, however, provides less than 2 of the energy used in either market. The present rate of reliance and consumption of fossil fuels for electrification or transportation is 100,000 times faster than the rate at which they are being created by natural forces. As the readily...

Resources And Reserves

Proven worldwide energy resources are large. The largest remaining known reserves of crude oil, used mainly for producing transportation fuels, are located in the Middle East, along the equator, and in the former Soviet Union. U.S. proven oil reserves currently account for only about 3 percent of the world's total. Large reserves of natural gas exist in the former Soviet Union and the Middle East. Coal is the most abundant fuel on earth and the primary fuel for electricity in the United States, which has the largest proven reserves. Annual world consumption of energy is still currently less than 1 percent of combined world reserves of fossil fuels. The resources and reserves of the principal fossil fuels in the United States coal, petroleum, and natural gas follow. The energy content of fossil fuels in commonly measured quantities is as follows.

Overview of Energy in the United States

Most of the energy produced today in the United States comes from fossil fuels coal, natural gas, crude oil, and natural gas plant liquids (see Figure 2-2) 11 . Although U.S. energy production takes many forms, the use of all fossil fuels far exceeds that of all other forms of energy. In 2000, fossil fuels accounted for 80 of total energy production and were valued at an estimated 148 billion 11 .

Fifth Edition

It is the author's belief that nuclear power will be necessary, as world population continues to grow, as expectations for better lives for people of the world are sought, but as the limits of energy efficiency are reached and fossil fuel resources become scarce. THE FUTURE of mankind is inextricable from nuclear energy. As the world population increases and eventually stabilizes, the demands for energy to assure adequate living conditions will severely tax available resources, especially those of fossil fuels. New and different sources of energy and methods of conversion will have to be explored and brought into practical use. The wise use of nuclear energy, based on understanding of both hazards and benefits, will be required to meet this challenge to existence.

What Is Coal

An encompassing description of coal has been given by van Krevelen 1 , in which he states Coal is a rock, a sediment, a conglomerate, a biological fossil, a complex colloidal system, an enigma in solid-state physics and an intriguing object for chemical and physical analyses. In short, coal is a chemically and physically heterogeneous, combustible, sedimentary rock consisting of both organic and inorganic material. Organically, coal consists primarily of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, with lesser amounts of sulfur and nitrogen. Inorganically, coal consists of a diverse range of ash-forming compounds distributed throughout the coal. The inorganic constituents can vary in concentration from several percentage points down to parts per billion of the coal. Coal is the most abundant fossil fuel in the United States, as well as the world. At the end of 2000, recoverable coal reserves in the United States, which contains the world's largest coal reserves, totaled 274 billion short tons...

11 Forces and Energy

Energy can be classified according to the primary source. We have already noted two sources of energy falling water and the burning of the chemical fuel gasoline, which is derived from petroleum, one of the main fossil fuels. To these we can add solar energy, the energy from winds, tides, or the sea motion, and heat from within the earth. Finally, we have energy from nuclear reactions, i.e., the burning of nuclear fuel.


DrBaranescu was previously Professor at the Technical University 'Polytehnica' Bucharest Romania. She moved to the USA in 1980 and joined Navistar International Transportation Corp. where she is chief engineerin the Engine Division. She is Chair of the Alternative Fuels Committee of the Engine Manufacturers' Association.


In 1995, the U.S.A. produced 3 trillion kWh of electricity, 70 percent of it (2 trillion kWh) from fossil fuels, a majority of that came from coal. The resulting emission is estimated to be 2 billion tons of CO2, 15 million tons of SO2 and 6 million tons of NOx. The health effects of these emissions are of significant concern to the U.S. public. The electromagnetic field emission around the high voltage transmission lines is another concern that has also recently become an environmental issue.


Oxidation is a chemical reaction that increases the oxygen content of a chemical compound. Oxidation of a fossil fuel, in the presence of an ignition source, results in combustion. Oxygen for the combustion process usually comes from air, but because oxygen comprises only about 20 of air, the volume of air required for combustion is much greater than the volume of pure oxygen required. Almost all of the remaining 80 of air is composed of nitrogen, which does not take part in the combustion reaction. Nitrogen does, however, absorb some of the heat, resulting in lower flame temperature. Nitrogen in combustion air may also produce nitrogen oxides (NOx), which are considered harmful emissions. Compared with the complete combustion with pure oxygen, the presence of nitrogen in combustion results in lower efficiency. Many of the fossil fuels are mixtures of chemical compounds called hydrocarbons, which consist primarily of hydrogen and carbon. During the combustion process, a series of...

Other Fuel Gases

There are several other types of fuel gas that can be used in both boiler and engine prime-mover applications. These include liquefied petroleum gases (LPG or LP), manufactured or mixed gases, digester gas, and sour gas, among others. These fuel gases are usually used when pipeline gas is not available, as a reserve supply for natural gas, or, in some cases, as a primary engine fuel. As reserve fuels, the role of these gases, along with liquefied natural gas (LNG), is important. These gases often allow facilities to withstand interruption of natural gas supplies and permit cost-effective interruptible natural gas contracts. Spark ignition engines are also more compatible with some of these gases as alternative fuels than with oil.