J a pa

or, for steady fflow in a uniform conduit

where

Wp is called the hydraulic diameter. Note that this result applies to a conduit of any cross-sectional shape. For a circular tube, for example, Dh is identical to the tube diameter D.

We see that there are several ways of interpreting the term ef. From the Bernoulli equation, it represents the ''lost'' (i.e., dissipated) energy

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