Make Your Own Fertilizer

Fertilizers Home Made Formulas

In this information you will find recipes and techniques that work to: Protect your house and lawn with special indoor and outdoor Shock Treatments: Ants, Snails, Slugs, Roaches, Fleas, Earwigs, Cockroaches, Silverfish, Beetles, Termites and Webworms. Say good-bye to those annoying yellow spots. Learn the secret to keep your grass greener in water restricted areas and in hot weather. Treat your lawn with a deworming concoction. (learn how and why you must do it once a year) Use effective Natural Insecticides (it's now time to learn what they are and how to use them. in the years to come, only natural insecticides will be permitted by cities!) Avoid serious plant, pet and child health problems caused by toxic commercial products. Protect yourself and your family against the nile virus in 1 minute. Kill ants and destroy the entire colony in 3 days or less. Kill harmful insects while fertilizing your soils.

Fertilizers Home Made Formulas Summary


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Fertilizers And Phosphates

Many of the materials used in the fertilizer industry are pulverized, such as those serving as sources for calcium, phosphorus, potassium, and nitrogen. The most commonly used for their lime content are limestone, oyster shells, marls, lime, and, to a small extent, gypsum. Limestone is generally ground in hammer mills, ring-roller mills, and ball mills. Fineness required varies greatly from No. 10 sieve to 75 percent through No. 100 sieve. Phosphates Phosphate rock is generally ground for one of two major purposes for direct application to the soil or for acidulation with mineral acids in the manufacture of fertilizers. Because of larger capacities and fewer operating-personnel requirements, plant installations involving production rates over 900 Mg h (100 tons h) have used ball-mill grinding systems. Ring-roll mills are used in smaller applications. Rock for direct use as fertilizer is usually ground to various specifications, ranging from 40 percent minus 200 mesh to 70 percent...

71215 Four Die at Fertilizer Plant Explosion

An early morning explosion, Dec. 13, 1994, killed four employees and injured 18 at Terra Industries' Port Neal, Iowa, nitrogen fertilizer plant, 16 miles south of Sioux City. The blast leveled half the facility and forced evacuation of more than 2,500 people from nearby towns with an ammonia cloud released from a ruptured storage tank. Road and air traffic were diverted. Some were injured by falling debris and others by the impact of the explosion. Many suffered from ammonia inhalation. The plant employed 119 people in three shifts, but only 30 were there when the explosion occurred. Terra's plant produced about 12 of the U.S. nitrogen-based liquid solution fertilizer. About one half of the plant was totally destroyed, the other half of the plant was damaged. The explosion was heard 50 to 60 miles away and shook Sioux City.


Fertilizers are the primary cause of groundwater contamination beneath agricultural lands. Both inorganic (chemically manufactured) and organic (from animal or human waste) fertilizers applied to agricultural lands provide nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium that fertilize the land and stimulate plant growth. A portion of these nutrients usually leaches through the soil and reaches the groundwater table. Phosphate and potassium fertilizers are readily adsorbed on soil particles and seldom constitute a pollution problem. However, only a portion of nitrogen is adsorbed by soil or used by plants, and the rest is dissolved in water to form nitrates in a process called nitrification. Nitrates are mobile in groundwater and have potential to harm infant human beings and livestock if consumed on a regular basis (Hassan 1974).

The Condition of the Waters

When a town or industry discharges additional organic material into the waters (which nature intended to be disposed of as fertilizer on land), the natural balance is upset. The organic effluent acts as a fertilizer, therefore the algae overpopulates and eventually blocks the transparency of the water. When the water becomes opaque, the ultraviolet rays of the sun can no longer penetrate it. This cuts off the algae from its energy source and it dies. The bacteria try to protect the life cycle in the water by attempting to break down the excess organic material (including the dead body cells of the algae), but the bacteria require oxygen for the digestion process. As the algae is no longer producing fresh oxygen, the dissolved oxygen content of the water drops, and when it reaches zero, all animals suffocate. At that point the living water body has been converted into an open sewer. Water availability has worsened since the first edition of this handbook. In the United States the daily...

Preface to First Edition

Petrochemicals in general are compounds and polymers derived directly or indirectly from petroleum and used in the chemical market. Among the major petrochemical products are plastics, synthetic fibers, synthetic rubber, detergents, and nitrogen fertilizers. Many other important chemical industries such as paints, adhesives, aerosols, insecticides, and pharmaceuticals may involve one or more petrochemical products within their manufacturing steps.

15 Energy and the World

All of the activities of human beings depend on energy, as we realize when we consider the dimensions of the world's energy problem. The efficient production of food requires machines, fertilizer, and water, each using energy in a different way. Energy is vital to transportation, protection against the weather, and the manufacturing of all goods. An adequate long-term supply of energy is therefore essential for man's survival. The world energy problem has many dimensions the increasing cost to acquire fuels as they become more scarce the potential for global climate change resulting from burning fossil fuels the effects on safety and health of the

Sewage Sludge Incineration

Sewage sludge, the stabilized and digested solid waste product of the wastewater treatment process, can be disposed of by landfilling, incineration, composting, or ocean dumping. Nature returns organic material to the soil as fertilizer. Organic material becomes waste when it is not returned to the soil but instead is burned, buried, or dumped in the ocean. These unhealthy practices began when chemical fertilizers took the market away from sludge-based compost and when industrial waste began to contaminate sewage sludge with toxic metals (lead and cadmium), making it unusable for agricultural purposes. Until recently, the bulk of the sewage sludge generated by metropolitan areas has been either landfilled or dumped in the ocean. These options are gradually disappearing and as a result municipalities will have to make some hard decisions. (See Sections 7.31 to 7.56).

Agricultural Requirements

The majority of hazardous chemical transferring in the agricultural market deals with the usage of either fertilizers or pesticides. A pesticide is a group of chemicals that consist of insecticides, herbicides, or fungicides. Insecticides focus on the control of insects, herbicides are chemicals used to control of grasses and weeds, and fungicides are chemicals used to control crop damaging bacteria and or fungus. During the last 20 years, the usage of chemicals in the agricultural market has been greatly affected by growing environmental concerns and worker safety. Environmental concerns have caused chemical formulations to use less aromatic solvents. As an alternative, many chemicals are now viscous water-based suspensions that generate pumping challenges. Chemical systems have also seen new regulations that control items such as chemical spillage from fittings, tank sizes, and design and testing parameters. This, in turn, has affected the needs and requirements of the chemical...

Nitrogen And Phosphorus

Ammonia is one of the intermediate compounds formed during biological metabolism and, together with organic nitrogen, is considered an indicator of recent pollution. Aerobic decomposition of organic nitrogen and ammonia eventually produces nitrite (NOj ) and finally nitrate (NOJ). High nitrate concentrations, therefore, may indicate that organic nitrogen pollution occurred far enough upstream that the organics have had time to oxidize completely. Similarly, nitrate may be high in groundwater after land application of organic fertilizers if there is sufficient residence time (and available oxygen) in the soils to allow oxidation of the organic nitrogen in the fertilizer.

Maintenance and Operational Practices

Proper maintenance and cleanliness of an urban area can have a significant impact on the quantity of pollutants washed from an area by storm water. Cleanliness of an urban area starts with control of litter, debris, deicing agents, and agricultural chemicals such as pesticides and fertilizers. Regular street repair and sweeping can further minimize pollutants in stormwater runoff. Proper drainage collection system use and maintenance can maximize control of pollutants by directing them to treatment or disposal.

Urban Nonpoint Source Pollution

Roads, driveways, parking lots, vehicle maintenance areas, gas stations, illicit dumping to storm drains Lawns, roads, leaky sanitary sewer lines, sanitary sewer cross-connections, animal waste, septic systems Lawn fertilizer, atmospheric deposition, automobile exhaust, soil erosion, animal waste, detergents Modified use of fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides Most of the structural BMPs are designed to remove sediments and pollutants that are transported in surface runoff along with sediments (e.g., phosphorus, pathogens, metals). Many of the nonstructural BMPs focus on reducing pesticides, hydrocarbons, commercial and industrial chemicals such as detergents and solvents, pet wastes, and fertilizers. Public education programs, along with appropriate enforcement of pollution control regulations, can be very effective at keeping these pollutants out of urban storm runoff.

11832 Anodic Protection

Anodic protection differs from that of CP in that its purpose is to raise the potential of a metal into the passivation domain of the Pourbaix corrosion diagram. In this case, the metal to be protected becomes the anode of the system, which is coupled to an inert counter electrode (cathode), for example, platinum. Anodic protection systems require the formation of a stable passive film and are therefore associated with the protection of metals that readily passivate, for example, stainless steels and titanium and its alloys. The majority of applications of anodic protection involve the manufacture, storage, and transport of sulfuric acid. Other applications include the protection of mild steel in paper mill acids, ammonia, ammonium nitrate, and other fertilizers. Typically for steel in contact with 93

Traditional biomass processes

Fresh biomass has low energy content by weight and volume compared to conventional fuels. Removal of water by drying increases the energy content by weight and volume. Some energy is lost, however, through the release of volatile organics in the diying processes. (The ashes from the gasification or biomass processing - potential fertilizers - would be landfilled like conventional fuel ashes and not returned to the fields.) Fermentation and digestion can be used to produce methane gas from biomass and landfills.

7472 G Family G G3 and G30

Alloy G-30 is a modification of the G-3 alloy with significantly increased chromium content and a lower molybdenum content. The alloy shows excellent resistance in commercial phosphoric acids as well as many complex and mixed acid environments of nitric hydrochloric and nitric hydrofluoric acids. The alloy has good resistance in sulfuric acid also. Some typical applications of alloy G-30 have been in phosphoric acid service, mixed acid service, nuclear fuel reprocessing, components in pickling operations, petrochemicals, agrichemicals manufacture (fertilizers, insecticides, pesticides, herbicides), and mining industries.

96 Caking of crystals

One of the most troublesome properties of crystalline materials is their tendency to bind together, or cake, on storage. Most crystalline products are required in a free-flowing form they should, for example, flow readily out of containers, e.g. sugar and table salt, or be capable of being distributed evenly over surfaces, e.g. fertilizers. Handling, packaging, tabletting and many other operations are all made easier if the crystalline mass remains in a particulate state. Caking not only destroys the free-flowing nature of the product but also necessitates some crushing operation, either manual or mechanical, before it can be used.

Types Of Thermal Dryers

Thermal drying of sludge is economical only if a market for the product is available. Although dried sludge makes a good soil conditioner and fertilizer and is convenient to use, especially for the home gardener, the cost of preparing and packaging it is seldom recouped from the profits. Accordingly, sludge drying is seldom used in the United States and does not represent an economical alternative to incineration or other disposal processes. However, if a municipality looks beyond economics and considers sludge as a natural resource, they have a strong argument for drying sludge and using it as a soil conditioner and fertilizer.

712 Some Deadly and Severe Chemical Accidents 7121 Five Hundred and Seventy Six Die in Texas City Disaster3

The port, along with much of Texas City, was ripped apart on April 16, 1947 after a cargo ship, the S.S. Grandcamp, exploded during a shipboard fire. Fueled by 2,300 tons of ammonium nitrate fertilizer (the same potentially explosive material used in the Oklahoma City bombing) the tremendous blast triggered a series of explosions and fires that killed 576 people, injured 4,000 more and damaged every building in Texas City. On April 11, 1947, the Grandcamp arrived at Texas City, loaded with 16 cases of small arms ammunition, 59,000 bales of fisal binder twine, 380 bales of cotton, 9,334 bags of shelled peanuts, some oil field, refrigeration and farm machinery. The Grandcamp docked at Warehouse Pier O, next to Monsanto Chemical Co. plant. Over the next few days, it was loaded with the rest of its cargo. The ammonium nitrate fertilizer was in 100-pound, 6-ply paper bags. (Although Alfred Nobel had included ammonium nitrate in his original formula for TNT, few people - even experts -...

95 Linear Quadratic Gaussian control system design

China clay is used in the paper, ceramics and fertilizer industries, and is washed from quarry faces, by high pressure hoses. A pressing operation reduces the moisture content in the clay to about 30 , and then the clay is extruded into small cylindrical shaped noodles. The clay noodles are then passed through the band drying oven shown in Figure 9.9 at rates varying between 2 and 15 tonnes hour. Upon exit, the moisture content of the clay should be controlled to a desired level of between 4 and 12 , with a deviation of no more than 1 . The process air is heated by mixing the exhaust gas from a gas burner with a large quantity of dilution air to meet the specified air flow-rate into the dryer.

Value Of Heatdried Sludge

Heat-dried sludge compared to sludge dried on sand beds is free of pathogens and weed seeds and is therefore safer to use. However, under normal conditions, heat-dried sludge is more powdery and more difficult to spread and mix with soil than conventional sludge. It is initially repellent to water although once it becomes partially moist, it readily absorbs more water. Therefore, heat-dried sludge must be further treated before being sold as a fertilizer.

Effect Of Wet Sludge Being Applied To Land

Maintenance of sludge disposal lagoons and landfills, environmental engineers must consider the sludge loading criteria, possible health effects through groundwater pollution, the potential for heavy metal accumulation in the soil and groundwater, the possibility of fertilizer nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus reaching the surface water, and general nuisance developments.

Heavy Metals And Toxic Substances

In the past quarter century, a considerable number of incidents of surface water contamination by hazardous and carcinogenic organic compounds were reported in the United States. The sources of these include effluent from petrochemical industries and agricultural runoff, which contains both pesticide and fertilizer residues. Trace quantities of chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds in drinking water may also be attributed to the chlorination of organic residues by chlorine added as a disinfectant. The production of these disinfection by-products is difficult to eliminate in the drinking water treatment process, but maintaining clean, unpolluted, source water is the first step.

Natural Gas Use in Power Generation

Industrial consumers, including chemical, fertilizer, and other process industries that use natural gas as a feedstock, are complaining that the high prices are making their products noncompetitive in international markets, thereby aggravating the economic downturn the United States was experiencing in 2003 16 . This prompted U.S. DOE Secretary Spencer Abraham to write a letter to 30 senators in June 2003 calling for, among other steps, electric utilities to switch from natural gas to coal and other energy sources. Many industrial users, such as the chemical industry, are supporting any energy aid program or initiative, such as switching power plants away from natural gas, that takes away the non-industrial demand for natural gas be it coal, nuclear, renewables, or conservation 19 . There have been discussions regarding building natural gas supplies, but these have a horizon of at least 10 years, which is too long for the chemical industry.

Approaching The Design Of Sizeenlargement Processes

Chemical granules or pharmaceutical tablets. Elimination of dust handling hazards or losses, as in briquetting of waste fines. Improved product appearance, or product renewal. Reduced caking and lump formation, as in granulation of fertilizer. Improved flow properties, as in granulation of pharmaceuticals for tabletting Fertilizers, iron ore, non-

Fluidizedbed And Related Granulators

High Shear Granulation Process

In fluidized granulators (fluidized beds and spouted beds), particles are set in motion by air, rather than by mechanical agitation. Applications include fertilizers, industrial chemicals, agricultural chemicals, pharmaceutical granulation, and a range of coating processes. Flu-idized granulators produce either high-porosity granules due to the agglomeration of powder feeds or high-strength layered granules due to coating of seed particles or granules by liquid feeds. Continuous fluid-bed granulators are used in the fertilizer and detergent industries. For fertilizer applications, near-size granules are recycled to control the granule size distribution. Dust is not recycled directly, but first remelted or slurried in the liquid feed.

Nh42s203 202 H20 2nh3 2nh42s04 Nh42s306 202 2h20 4nh3 3nh42s04 Nh4s03nh2 H20 Nh42s04

Ammonium sulfamate is a herbicide and must be hydrolyzed to sulfate to avoid contamination of the ammonium sulfate fertilizer. Ammonium sulfate is crystallized from the reduction end solution, following sulfide precipitation of the minor amounts of metal remaining in solution after hydrogen reduction.

Saltingout crystallization

Adductive Crystallization

Several potential applications of salting-out crystallization have been reported for the production of pure inorganic salts from aqueous solution (Gee, Cunningham and Heindl, 1947), the recovery of fertilizer-grade salts from seawater (Fernandez-Lozano, 1976) and the separation of inorganic salt mixtures (Alfassi and Mosseri, 1984). The recovery of inorganic salts from concentrated aqueous solution is considered by Weingaertner, Lynn and Hanson (1991) who propose a process in which the filtered mother liquor is regenerated into two phases, aqueous and organic, by change of temperature and addition of more feedstock. Both phases are then recycled. Detailed examples are given for the recovery of sodium chloride using 2-propanol or diisopropylamine and sodium carbonate using 1-propanol or 1-butanol. The kinetics of the salting-out crystallization of anhydrous sodium sulphate, from dilute aqueous solutions of sulphuric acid using methanol, have been studied by Mina-Mankarios and Pinder...

Prevention And Mitigation Of Nonpoint Source Pollution

Runoff from agricultural areas may contain high concentrations of suspended sediments, dissolved and suspended nutrients (phosphorus and nitrogen), biodegradable organic matter, pesticides (herbicides, insecticides, fungicides), and pathogens from animal waste. If biosolids from municipal wastewater treatment facilities have been used as a soil conditioner or fertilizer, the runoff may also contain traces of toxic metals and other residues associated with municipal sludges (see Chap. 10). Pollution control in agricultural areas is aimed at preventing or reducing sediment erosion controlling pesticide runoff improving the efficiency of fertilizer and irrigation water use, and reducing the amount lost to groundwater seepage and surface water runoff improving riparian and conservation buffers restricting animal access to streams and improving manure management techniques. The U.S. Environmental Crop nutrient management is designed to increase the efficiency of applying crop fertilizers...

Nitrogen Removal Efficiency

Industrial wastewater discharges, especially from the ammonium nitrate fertilizer industry, typically contain con Ion-exchange has been used successfully to treat the wastewater from a large nitrogen fertilizer plant producing 140,000 tn of prilled ammonium nitrate and 190,000 tn of nitrogen solutions annually. A captive ammonia plant producing 175,000 tn annually and a captive nitric acid plant producing 195,000 tn annually provide the feed stock for primary products. The wastewater from this typical plant contained a concentration of about 500 mg l nitrogen, equally divided between ammonium and nitrate forms, in about 900,000 gal of effluent per day. The fertilizer plant chose ion exchange as the treatment process at the conclusion of a two-year study which showed that no other process had the capability of approaching the zero-pollutant-discharge goal or permitted total water reuse and recycling. As a treatment process, ion exchange can provide effluent water of adequate quality...

Reuse of Incinerator

Various forms of slag tiles, bricks, and concrete blocks are made from ash residues. The city of Tokyo sells a large tonnage of its multiple-hearth furnace ash to C. Itoh Fertilizer Sales Company, Ltd. Vitalin is sold under the special fertilizer category because material containing less than 12 phosphate cannot be classed as fertilizer. (Some states also require that the material have a nitrogen content of 6 or a total NPK range of 20 to 25 .)

Sources Of Water Pollution

Nutrients, mainly nitrogen and phosphorus, can promote accelerated eutrophica-tion, or the rapid biological aging of lakes, streams, and estuaries. Phosphorus and nitrogen are common pollutants in residential and agricultural runoff, and are usually associated with plant debris, animal wastes, or fertilizer. Phosphorus and nitrogen are also common pollutants in municipal wastewater discharges, even if the wastewater has received conventional treatment. Phosphorus adheres to inorganic sediments and is transported with sediments in storm runoff. Nitrogen tends to move with organic matter or is leached from soils and moves with groundwater. Agricultural wastes that flow directly into surface waters have a collective population equivalent of about two billion. Agricultural wastes are typically high in nutrients (phosphorus and nitrogen), biodegradable organic carbon, pesticide residues, and fecal coliform bacteria (bacteria that normally live in the intestinal tract of warm-blooded...

Table 461 National Primary Drinking Water Standards

Natural deposits fertilizer, aluminum industries water additive Natural deposits asbestos cement in water systems Natural deposits pigments, epoxy sealants, spent coal Galvanized pipe corrosion natural deposits batteries, paints Natural deposits mining, electroplating, pigments Crop runoff natural deposits batteries, electrical switches Animal waste, fertilizer, natural deposits, septic tanks, sewage Same as nitrate rapidly converted to nitrate Natural deposits mining, smelting, coal oil combustion

Commercial Applications

For the capture of H2S and volatile sulfur compounds (e.g., thiols, COS, and CS2) released during the transportation of sour liquids, a portable system is required. Am-gas Scrubbing Systems Ltd. (Calgary, Canada) manufactures both portable and stationary units that use 26 aqueous ammonia. The spent solution oxidizes to form ammonium sulfate, which is recovered from the spent absorbent and can be marketed as fertilizer. Alternate absorbents for portable units include basic hypochlorite (bleach) solutions, but the stability of the solution decreases with consumption of the base as the H2S is absorbed. A complicating factor in the use of basic fluid absorbent systems is that CO2 is also a weak acid and is absorbed to sequentially form bicarbonate (HCO3) and carbonate (CO _) ions, thereby consuming the absorbent.

4Establishment of Vegetation

Soil treatments, such as the use of slow release fertilizer incorporation of soil amendments such as compost into the soil layer and surface mulching, may improve the success rate of introduced vegetation. Consult the WSDOT Horticulturist for recommendations. (Check with the local maintenance office or the local jurisdiction's comprehensive plan for any restrictions such as those in well-head protection areas.)

Health Considerations

The possibility of fertilizer nutrient buildup in ground-water and surface water from sludge lagoon and landfill leachates does exist. Therefore, environmental engineers should be concerned with this possibility because high concentrations of nitrates in drinking water can have toxic effects on humans and nitrogen and phosphorus contribute to eutrophication in surface water.

The Condition of the

Nature never produces anything that it can not decompose and return into the pool of fresh resources. Man does. Nature returns organic wastes to the soil as fertilizer. Man often dumps such wastes in the oceans, buries them in landfills, or burns them in incinerators. Man's deeply rooted belief in continuous growth treats nature as a commodity, the land, oceans, and atmosphere as free dumps. There is a subconscious assumption that the planet is inexhaustible. In fact the dimensions of the biosphere are fixed and the planet's resources are exhaustible.

Chemical Use Control

Reducing the indiscriminate use and disposal of fertilizers, pesticides, oil and gasoline, and detergents is a frequently overlooked measure for reducing stormwater runoff pollution. Tree spraying, weed control, municipal fertilization of parks and parkways, and homeowner use of pesticides and fertilizers can be controlled by increasing public awareness of the potential hazards to receiving waters. Direct dumping of chemicals and debris into catch basins, inlets, and sewers is a significant problem that can only be addressed through educational programs, ordinances, and enforcement.

Nusselt equation

Phosphorus pentoxide (P), and potassium oxide (K). Fertilizers are graded in the order N-P-K, with the numbers indicating the percentage of the total weight of each component. For example, 5-10-10 represents a mixture containing by weight 5 nitrogen, 10 phosphorus pentoxide, and 10 potassium oxide. npnp diode See pnpn diode. en.pi en.pi 'dT.od


The most common isotope has atomic weight 30.974. A nonmetallic element of the nitrogen family. Found in certain types of rock. Used in the manufacture of various fertilizers. Also used in cleaning detergents. Commonly employed as a dopant in semiconductor manufacture, and as an alloy constituent in some electrical and electronic components.


Erosion of construction areas represents the largest source of sediments in urban runoff. Reported unit loads of sediment from urban construction sites ranged from 12 to 500 tons half-yr (Novotny and Chesters 1981). Furthermore, building activities generate other pollutants such as chemicals from fertilizers and pesticides, petroleum products, construction chemicals (cleaning solvents, paints, acids and salts), and various solids. Grading exposes subsoil, increasing surface erosion due to stormwater runoff.


Fluoride is present in phosphatic fertilizers, hydrogen fluoride, fluorinated hydrocarbons, and certain petroleum refinery waste. The leaching losses and mobility of fluoride can be large because of the anionic structure of fluoride and the solubility of some of its salt (Bemner and Shaw 1958). Sodium salts of fluoride (NaF) are soluble and result in high soluble fluoride levels in soils low in calcium. Calcium salts of fluoride (CaF2), however, are relatively insoluble and limit the amount of fluoride leached to groundwater. Fluoride solubility depends on the kind and relative quantity of cations present in soil that has formed salts with the fluoride ion (F-). Fluorosis disease can occur in animals who consume water containing 15 ppm of fluoride (Lee 1975).


In Japan, industrial standardization is promoted at the national, industry association, and company level. JISC develops Japanese industrial standards (JIS) as voluntary national standards. JISC has implemented divisions (e.g., JISC committee R, Fine Ceramics) that develop processes and techniques for, among other things, providing a JIS mark that assures a certain level of quality. One requirement for the success of the JISC standardization efforts is that the resulting standards should be shaped with industrial users in mind. Seldom if ever are research-oriented standards acceptable as commercial standards. To ensure commercial usefulness, industry must participate in the standards-setting process. Various JISC divisions and the type of JIS standards that result are shown in Fig. 12.3. Note that the 19 divisions of JISC are far fewer in number than the over 150 committees of ASTM. Moreover, divisions within JISC specifically exclude medicines, agricultural chemicals, chemical...


Wastes in septic tanks Solid wastes generated in growing and harvesting agricultural crops or raising animals this includes animal manures that are returned to the soil as fertilizers Mining overburden returned to the mine site Fly ash waste, bottom ash waste, slag waste, and flue gas emission control waste, generated from coal or other fossil fuels combustion

151 Introduction

The chemicals industry encompasses a wide range of end products. It is sometimes divided into two general categories referred to as inorganic and organic chemicals. Inorganic chemicals include things like acids, bases, fertilizers, chlorines, bromines, and phosphates. While mineral products like cement are sometimes included under inorganic chemicals, here they are considered as a separate class of products (see Chap. 14). Organic chemicals include petrochemical and other hydrocarbon products such as carbon black, explosives, paints, and varnishes. Hydrocarbon-based products are the primary focus of this chapter. The petrochemicals industry general refers to chemicals derived from petroleum or natural gas and includes a variety of compounds from acetylene to vinyl chloride. Raw materials include crude petroleum, natural gas, refinery gas, natural gas condensate, light tops or naphtha, and heavy fractions such as fuel oil 1 . The primary products of the petroleum industry fall into...

Ammonia Nh3

Ammonia is one of the most important inorganic chemicals, exceeded only by sulfuric acid and lime. This colorless gas has an irritating odor, and is very soluble in water, forming a weakly basic solution. Ammonia could be easily liquefied under pressure (liquid ammonia), and it is an important refrigerant. Anhydrous ammonia is a fertilizer by direct application to the soil. Ammonia is obtained by the reaction of hydrogen and atmospheric nitrogen, the synthesis gas for ammonia. The 1994 U.S. ammonia production was approximately 40 billion pounds (sixth highest volume chemical).

Airborne Process

Airborne Pollution Control, in cooperation with LG& E Energy Corporation, The Babcock & Wilcox Company, and USFilter HPD Systems, has developed an emerging multipollutant, post-combustion control system 101 . The technology combines the use of dry sodium bicarbonate injection coupled with enhanced wet sodium carbonate scrubbing to provide SOZ, NOX, mercury, and other heavy metal reductions. Although sodium bicarbonate scrubbing is well known as an effective flue gas cleanup process, commercial application has been prevented by the high cost of sodium bicarbonate, the limited economic value of the scrubber product (i.e., sodium sulfate), and the economic and environmental issues associated with sodium sulfate disposal 98 . Airborne Pollution Control has developed a recycling process that will regenerate sodium sulfate back into sodium bicarbonate and a sulfate-based fertilizer product that may eliminate the financial and disposal barriers. Testing has reached the 5-MW level.


Granulator-Dryers for Layering and Coating Some designs of tumbling granulators also act as dryers specifically to encourage layered growth or coating and discourage coalescence or agglomeration, e.g., the fluidized-drum granulator Anon, Nitrogen, 196,3-6 (1992) . These systems have drum internals designed to produce a falling curtain of granules past an atomized feed solution or slurry. Layered granules are dried by a stream of warm air before circulating through the coating zone again. Applications are in fertilizer and industrial chemicals manufacture. Analysis of these systems is similar to flu-idized-bed granulator dryers. Other advantages claimed for the disc granulator include low equipment cost, sensitivity to operating controls, and easy observation of the granulation classification action, all of which lend versatility in agglomerating many different materials. Dusty materials and chemical reactions such as the ammoniation of fertilizer are handled less readily in the disc...

ECO Process

Is the ammonia scrubber, which removes unconverted sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide produced in the barrier discharge. A WESP follows the scrubber and it, along with the scrubber, captures acid aerosols produced by the discharge reactor, fine particulate matter, and oxidized mercury. The WESP also captures aerosols generated in the ammonia scrubber. Liquid effluent from the ammonia scrubber contains dissolved sulfate and nitrate salts, along with mercury and captured particulate matter. It is sent to a by-product recovery system, which includes filtration to remove ash and activated carbon adsorption for mercury removal. The treated by-product stream, free of mercury and ash, can be processed to form ammonia sulfate nitrate fertilizer. Powerspan's capital cost estimate is 200 kW, including balance of plant modifications 100 . The levelized operating and maintenance costs are estimated to be 2.0 to 2.5 mills kWh.


Almost all the processes relevant to the manufacturing industry (chemical, petrochemical, fertilizer, metallurgical, power, cement and so on) involve flow of fluids in some way or the other. Innovative and competitive edge in any manufacturing industry rests on how well these flow processes are designed and operated. In view of the central role of reactors in chemical process industries, there is tremendous potential for applying new flow modeling tools to chemical reactor engineering. Reactor engineering requires expertise from different fields ranging from chemistry and catalysis to fluid mixing and transport phenomena. Reactor engineering has to marry chemistry and catalysis with reactor hardware to evolve the best possible way to carry out the process under consideration. It is obvious that reactor engineers need to use several modeling tools to achieve their objectives. Computational flow modeling or CFD is being increasingly used for reactor engineering practice and research. In...

1664 Flash drying

A typical flash-drying process consists of a modified pneumatic conveyor in which the wet solids are introduced into a pipe through which they are transported in a high velocity hot gas stream. In such a process, sticky sludges must first be mixed with dry solids so that the resultant mixture breaks up into smaller particles in the gas stream. Such a process can be used for a wide range of applications-62-. In the drying of the gypsum by-product of flue gas desulphurisation, for example, operating at a minimum solids temperature allows the gypsum to retain its water of hydration, and in the conversion of sewerage sludge into dry fertiliser flash drying prevents the fertilizer from oxidising. Because waste flue gases can often be used as the drying medium, little or no external heat energy is required and, when the dried sludge is burned as a fuel, the heat generated provides much of the energy required for drying.

172Tracer Techniques

The tracer method consists of the introduction of a small amount of an isotope and the observation of its progress as time goes on. For instance, the best way to apply fertilizer containing phosphorus to a plant may be found by including minute amounts of the radioisotope phosphorus-32, half-life 14.28 days, emitting 1.7 MeV beta particles. Measurements of the radiation at various times and locations in the plant by a detector or photographic film provides accurate information on the rate of phosphorus intake and deposition. Similarly, circulation of blood in the human body can be traced by the injection of a harmless solution of radioactive sodium, Na-24, 14.96hour half-life. For purposes of medical diagnosis, it is desirable to administer enough radioactive material to provide the needed data, but not so much that the patient is harmed.

Lazy jack

Leaching chem eng The dissolving, by a liquid solvent, of soluble material from its mixture with an insoluble solid leaching is an industrial separation operation based on mass transfer examples are the washing of a soluble salt from the surface of an insoluble precipitate, and the extraction of sugar from sugarbeets. 'leich-ig lead des eng The distance that a screw will advance or move into a nut in one complete turn. elec A wire used to connect two points in a circuit. eng Amass of lead attached to a line, as used for sounding at sea. led lead angle des eng The angle that the tangent to a helix makes with the plane normal to the axis of the helix. 'lid .ag-gsl lead-chamber process chem eng A process for the preparation of impure or dilute (60-78) sulfuric acid sulfur dioxide is oxidized by moist air with nitrogen oxide catalysts in a series of lead-lined chambers, the Gay-Lussac tower and the Glover tower used primarily in the manufacture of fertilizer. 'led .cham-bsr .pra-sss lead...

Tumbling Granulators

Disc Granulator Diagram

In tumbling granulators, particles are set in motion by the tumbling action caused by the balance between gravity and centrifugal forces. The most common types of tumbling granulators are disc and drum granulators. Their use is widespread, including the iron-ore industry (where the process is sometimes called balling or wet pelletization), fertilizer manufacture, agricultural chemicals and pharmaceuticals.


Objectives Equipment in which solid materials are mixed may be used for a number of operations. Blending of ingredients may be the main objective, as, for example, in the preparation of feeds, insecticides, fertilizer, glass batches, packaged foods, and cosmetics. Other objectives may include cooling or heating such as in the cooling of limestone or sugar or the preheating of plastic prior to calendering. Drying or roasting of the solids is sometimes desired. In some applications, such as polymerization of plastics, catalyst manufacture, or the preparation of cereal products, the solids mixture may be reacted. Coating is desired in some cases, as in the manufacture of pigments, dyes, minerals, candy, and other food products and in the preparation of feeds. In certain of these cases, small amounts of liquid may be added, but the end product is a solids mixture. Sometimes agglomerates are desired, as in the preparation of food products, pharmaceuticals, detergents, and fertilizer. Often...

Case Study

Refrigeration Trucks Temperatuge Table

Ammonia is one of the largest volume inorganic chemicals in the chemical process industries. Its major applications are in the production of fertilizers, nitrates, sulfates, phosphates, explosives, plastics, resins, amines, amides, and textiles. The fertilizer industry is the largest user of ammonia, and large quantities must be stored to meet the demand and maintain constant production levels. Ammonia may be stored in very large insulated tanks at pressure near ambient in large spheres at a moderate pressure, refrigerated to reduce the pressure and at ambient temperature but higher pressure, corresponding

Ultimate Disposal

Even after treatment, we are left with a large volume of sludge that needs a final resting place. The choices for ultimate disposal of sludge are limited to air, water, and land. Until quite recently, incineration (air disposal) was viewed as an effective sludge reduction method, if not exactly an ultimate sludge disposal method (the residual ash still required disposal). However, strict controls on air pollution and increasing concern over global warming are making incineration an increasingly unlikely option. Disposal of sludges in deep water (such as oceans) is decreasing owing to adverse or unknown detrimental effects on aquatic ecology. Land disposal, particularly the use of sludge as fertilizer or soil conditioner, has historically been a favored disposal method, and is currently growing in popularity as other options become more problematic. There has been some successful use of land application for sludge for fertilization, particularly in silviculture operations. Forests and...


Hydrogen is perhaps more appropriately termed an energy carrier, not a fuel source, since it must be manufactured. It is produced through steam reforming or through electrolysis. Steam reforming involves the use of high-temperature steam to separate hydrogen from carbon atoms in a feedstock fuel (i.e., natural gas, oil, etc.). Currently, this process is generally only used in the manufacture of fertilizer and chemicals or to upgrade the quality of certain petroleum products. Electrolysis involves the splitting of water into its basic elements, hydrogen and oxygen. This is done by passing an electric current through water to separate the atoms (2H2O 2H2 + O2). Hydrogen collects at the negatively charged cathode and oxygen collects at the positively charged anode. The energy required to produce hydrogen via electrolysis (assuming a typical 1.23 volt source) is about 51,000 Btu lbm (33 kWh kg). Other experimental methods to produce hydrogen include photoelectrolysis, which uses sunlight...


The name 'prilling' is given to a melt-spray crystallization process that results in the formation of solid spherical granules. It is employed widely in the manufacture of fertilizer chemicals such as ammonium nitrate, potassium nitrate, sodium nitrate and urea. An interesting method of prilling has been developed for the processing of calcium nitrate in a form suitable for use as a fertilizer (van den Berg and Hallie, I960). Calcium nitrate, which is hygroscopic, is produced as a byproduct in the manufacture of nitrophosphate fertilizer. The process consists of crystallizing droplets of calcium nitrate in the form of prills in a mineral oil to which seed crystals have been added. A spray of droplets of the concentrated solution, formed by allowing jets of the liquid at 1400C to fall on to a rotating cup, fall into an oil-bath kept at 50-800C. The prills are removed, centrifuged to remove surplus oil, and packed into bags. Because of the thin film of oil which remains on the...


To date, food production has kept pace with population growth, but only at a drastic price increases in pesticide (300 ) and fertilizer (150 ) use, which in turn further pollutes the environment. The total amount of land suitable for agriculture is about 8 billion acres. Of that, 3.8 billion acres are under cultivation and, with the growth of the road systems and cities, the availability of land for agricultural uses is shrinking. The amount of water available for irrigation is also dropping. Without excessive fertilization, one acre of land is needed to feed one person therefore, the human population has already exceeded the number supportable without chemical fertilizers. As chemical fertilizer manufacturing is based on the use of crude oil, models simulating world trends predict serious shortages in the next century (Figure 5).

72 Past Incidents

7.2.1 Drying of Compound Fertilizers A fire and explosion occurred in a dryer handling a blended fertilizer that contained single and triple super-phosphates and a mixture of The blend was prone to self-sustained decompositions, and began decomposing while passing through the dryer. When the temperature of the blend rose to about 130 C, the operator intervened and shut down the dryer. Subsequendy, a rapid exothermic reaction occurred within the dryer which resulted in a fire and explosion. One person was killed and 18 were injured (Drogaris 1993). See item 1 in Table 7 for potential design solutions.

M2aq H2S MSs 2Haq

The solution obtained after removal of the metal values as metal sulfides, contains only ammonium sulfate. This solution, referred to as barren solution is then evaporated and ammonium sulfate, which is formed as an overall refinery by-product, is recovered in a crystalline form. The ammonium sulfate recovery consists of crystallization followed by centrifuging, drying, and screening. The crystalline ammonium sulfate is then sold as a fertilizer.


Nitrate removal The presence of nitrates in water intended as a potable supply, or for the food industry, is a major environmental concern, arising from the use of nitrate fertilizers. The suggested limit is 50 mg NO3 L_1, and the options open to attain this include microbiological, reverse electrodialysis using nitrate selective membranes, and traditional ion exchange methods.