## Hidden Secrets In Microsoft Excel

This ebook from Francis Hayes gives you professional tools to help you get the most out of your Excel program. Any one of these secrets could be the only one that you ever need to know for Excel, but this ebook includes bunches of those tips and tricks! Just think of all of the useful information you can get from it! If you have ever been frustrated at your lack of progress in Microsoft Excel, this guide will teach you everything that you need to know to harness the powerful functions or time-saving elements of Microsoft Excel. Excel is used by offices all over the world, but so few people take the time to teach you anything important about it. Too much time is usually wasted searching the internet for tips on how to use it more efficiently Learn the best way to master Excel in this ebook!

#### 101 Secrets of a Microsoft Excel Addict Summary

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Author: Francis Hayes
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## 54 Where might metal foams excel

Material indices help identify applications in which a material might excel. Material-selection charts like those shown in Chapters 4, 11 and 12 allow the values of indices for metal foams to be established and compared with those of other engineering materials. The comparison reveals that metal foams have interesting values of the following indices

## Exercise 2 Entering and Copying a Formula

A formula is an expression telling Excel to perform an operation. Initially, we will limit ourselves to arithmetic operations. All formulas begin with the equal symbol ( ). To perform an arithmetic operation we need to follow the symbol with an arithmetic expression. The expression may contain numeric values, cell references and arithmetic operators. An example of a formula is A1+A2+A3 which returns the value resulting from the addition of the values in the three cells. going to make mistakes when learning Excel. Here are hints for quickly correcting them. If you were asked to compute the simple expression 3+4x2 would you reply 11 or 14 Most of us would give the former as would Microsoft Excel. In Excel, and in other programs written in all the major languages, an expression is evaluated following this order of precedence for the arithmetic operators Negation (-) Exponentiation (A) Multiplication and division (*, ) Addition and subtraction (+, - ) (a) On Sheet 1 of the CHAP2.XLS...

## Exercise 4 Displayed and Stored Values

If we wish to have a value stored with a set number of decimal digits, we use the ROUND function which is discussed in a later chapter. It is possible to use the Tools Option command to have Excel use the same precision as the displayed value. This may be useful in financial worksheets but is not recommended. In the next part of the exercise we see an oddity of Microsoft Excel. When a formula is typed into a cell which has not been previously formatted (i.e. it has the General format) and the formula contains only (i) references to one or more cells with identical formats and (ii) either no operator, or only the addition or subtraction operator, then the cell with the formula gets the format of the referenced cells. In this exercise we see that with the Copy and Paste commands both the values and the formats are copied. However, Excel 2002 provides a way to avoid copying formats. The worksheet will resemble Figure 2.7 when the exercise is complete. E2 Microsoft Excel - Xchop2 xls The...

## Exercise 7 Calculation Example

We have started a vertical table in step (b) and completed in Step (c). Excel provides a handy shortcut in such cases. Double clicking the fill handle of B4 causes the formula to be copied down the table. While our worksheet is able to compute the equivalent resistance of any four resistors in parallel, it cannot be used for fewer. If we enter 0 in A7 (for example), Excel will return the error value DIV 0 in B7. The same error value will be displayed for all formulas that use B7. Incorporating an IF function (see Chapter 5) in the formulas used in B4 B7 would make the worksheet much more versatile. (c) If you have entered everything correctly, Microsoft Excel politely points out that there is a small error and offers to correct it by adding the closing parenthesis. Click the Yes button of the dialog box.

## Exercise 1 Anatomy of the Window

Begin this exercise by starting Excel. Your screen will look similar to that in Figure l.l. There could be some minor differences because Excel allows the user to customize the menus and toolbars. Furthermore, starting with Excel 2000, the items displayed in toolbars and in the initial drop down menus change with usage. A tool that has been recently used will be displayed on the initial menu. We will look at customization in Exercise 5. In starting Microsoft Excel, we have opened a new workbook. Because we have not yet saved our work, Excel has given this the default name of Bookl. The menu bar provides the user with one way to access the Microsoft Excel commands. Commands are actions you perform on your worksheet. Examples are saving the data to a File, printing a worksheet, changing the appearance of some text, etc. horizontal scroll bars which allow you to view other parts of the worksheet. Also at the bottom are the sheet labs which give you access to the other worksheets. Excel...

## Exercise 7 Changing Axis Crossings

There are times when we wish to change where one axis crosses the other. In Figure 6.21 we have plotted a series of negatives-values. The default for a Microsoft Excel chart is for the x-axis to cross the -axis as shown in the left-hand chart. Most of us would prefer the right-hand chart.

## Summary of Print Commands

Note that we can no longer see all the text in A1 since it overflows into B1. If the formulas are long they also may be truncated, in which case select the appropriate column heading and use Format CoIumns AutoFit to have Excel adjust the column widths. When a function is used as an argument we use the term nesting. Functions may be nested up to seven levels. An example of three-level nesting is LOG10(MAX (SUM(A1 A4),25)). To interpret this we read from the inside. First the range Al A4 is summed, then Excel determines the maximum of the sum and the value 25 and, finally, computes the base 10 logarithm of the result of that determination. There is not room in this book to discuss all the worksheet functions. A list of the functions in the various categories can be found by using Help Contents and then expanding Function Reference. You should review the lists before constructing a complex formula or worksheet. For example, suppose A1 A10 contains some numeric values and you wish to...

## Exercise 2 Insert Function

Excel 2002 introduced some changes in nomenclature. Whereas Excel 97 and Excel 2000 users speak about the Paste Function tool and the Formula Palette, Excel 2002 users talk of the Insert Function tool and dialog box. Also, the location of the tool has been changed. The Paste Function tool is on the Standard toolbar while the Insert Function tool is on the formula bar. Functionally, everything works more or less the same in all Excel versions This exercise will use the terminology of Excel 2002, other users should readily be able to follow the instructions. (a) This time we will find the average of the values in A1. A3 of CHAP4.XLS. Select D2 as the active cell. Click the Insert Function button on the formula bar (pre-Excel 2002 users, use the Paste Formula button on the Standard toolbar) to bring up the Insert Function dialog box see Figure 4.5.

## Exercise 7 Rounding Function

In Exercise 4 of Chapter 3 we saw that formatting a cell changes the way a value is displayed but not the stored values. Excel provides a number of functions which either truncate or round a value to a required number of digits or to a multiple of some number. Constant values are used in the examples to facilitate the discussion. Clearly, the function would normally be used with cell addresses or an expression as the first argument. A few of the functions have a second argument. While this may be a constant, a cell address or an expression, it is more usual to use a constant. Most of us round 4.3 to 4 and 4.6 to 5. But what about 4.5 While many would reply 5, others use the round-to-even rule. Thus 4.5 rounds to 4 as does 3.5. Unfortunately, Excel does not provide a function that follows this rule but one can construct a user-defined function (see Chapter 8) that does. 2. Once the formula is typed you complete it not with a simple R but with fCtri + o Shiftl+ Enter- -11. When you do...

## Exercise 6 Getting Help

In this exercise we briefly look at how to get help in Microsoft Excel. Suppose we wish to know how to change the width of a column. There is no need to type a complete question such as How do I change a column width You need enter only the key words so in the case we could use column width. (b) Unless your copy of Excel has been set to do otherwise (see step (c) below), one of the Assistants will appear together with a dialog box into which you type your question. Then click on Search and click the item that seems closest to your question - Figure 1.8. This will open the full Help window. 3 Microsoft Excel Help f I With Excel 2002 one can type the question in the question box 2 New t0 Excel 2002 - less intrusive than the Assistant. Furthermore, the question

## Userdefined Functions

Microsoft Excel includes a powerful programming language called Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) which enables you to write modules which may be subroutines or functions. A subroutine performs a process such as displaying a dialog box in which the user enters data. A function returns a value to a cell (or a range) in the same way as a built-in worksheet function. We shall explore only function coding. If you have experience with any programming language you will be familiar with many of the topics covered in this chapter. If you are not yet a programmer, VBA is a great way to begin. The emphasis in this chapter is on how to write functions so we will use simple examples. Later chapters make use of this skill to code more useful functions. Why and when do we use user-defined functions Just as it is more convenient to use SUM(A1 A20) rather than A1+ A2+ +A20, a user-defined function may be more convenient when we repeatedly need to perform a certain type of calculation for which...

## The IF and the Logical Functions

Expression-1 and Expression-2 are any valid Excel expressions composed of cell references, constants and functions. Essentially, an expression is a formula without the equal sign. Thus to test if cell A3 has a value of 5 the condition is A3 5. Here the first expression is a simple cell reference, while the second one is a constant. An example of a more complicated condition would be (Al+A2)*10 > B1 B2. When D2 is negative, the function NA() causes the Excel value N A (meaning 'not available' or 'not applicable') to be displayed. Sometimes we use this to mean 'Display something is wrong'. Excel 2002 When a cell contains the value TRUE, Excel 2002 may add a Smart tag. The lower right corner of the cell displays a purple triangle and, when the cell is active, a smart tag icon appears. Excel is set to tag financial symbols and TRUE is the NASDAQ symbol for the high-tech company TimeTrue, Inc. These tags may be disabled using Tools AutoCorrect Options and opening the Smart Tag tab....

## Exercise 13 Symbols and Such

(c) If you are familiar with Word you will know that one can use Insert Symbol to get symbols and Greek characters into a document. Until the latest version, Excel did not support this feature. However, one could use the Windows procedure (Start Programs Accessories Character Map) to copy symbols to the clipboard for pasting into a cell. With Excel 2002 one has access to the Insert Symbol dialog. Indeed, it is a much improved feature - see Figure 2.17. If you mistakenly type 1 8 in A4, Excel will assume you want a data (1 August or 8 January depending on your regional settings). Delete the entry and use Edit Clear Format lo remove the date formatting. (a) In Figure 2.18 the entry in A3 was made by typing 2 1 4 - note the space between the integer and the fraction. The entry in A4 was made by typing 0 1 8 - Excel does not display the leading zero. Select each cell in turn and observe the values displayed in the formula bar they will be decimal values since that is how Excel stores the...

## Exercise 2 Object Embedding

If you are new to OLE the result is unexpected. Although you are running a word processor application (Word, WordPerfect, etc.), the part of the screen containing the chart now looks like Excel. That is exactly what it is. The whole of your Excel workbook has been embedded in the document. While the chart is open, the application's menus and tools bars have been replace by those from Excel. (d) If you save the word processing document, a copy of the workbook is saved with it not as a separate file but as part of the word processing document file. You could give a copy of the file to a colleague and he she could modify the workbook provided his her computer had Excel installed. In the previous exercise we have embedded a workbook in a document. Part of the word processing 'space' has Excel properties. In the embedded object of Exercise 2 we displayed a chart. We can open the workbook from within the word processing application, modify the data and hence...

## Exercise 4 Going Modular

(f) Select B7 B10 and drag the handle to column F. Change your n values to match those in the spreadsheet. Note that large numbers may be entered with a comma to make them more readable. Do not be surprised if your worksheet takes some time to respond. Microsoft Excel has to do a large number of calculations. Save the workbook.

## Natural Language Formulas

One of the most hailed new features of Excel 97 was called natural language formulas. This allows the use of column or row labels in formulas without creating names. For example, with the worksheet shown in Figure 2.19, the natural language feature allows you, without going through the process of creating names, to use formulas such as Density*Mass in C2 C3 and SUM(Mass) in C4. This feature proved to be a mixed blessing and, while it was retained in later Excel versions, it is switched off when you first install the product. It is controlled by the box labelled Accept labels in formulas in the Calculations tab (Tools Options). The reader is encouraged to leave it switched off and to avoid using this feature since it can easily lead to errors.

## Exercise 4 Mixed Numeric and Text Values

During this exercise, Excel 2002 users will see a green triangle in the top left corner of some cells and, when such a cell is active, an error smart tag (an exclamation mark in a yellow diamond) is displayed near the cell. We explore this topic in the next exercise. For cases when non-numeric values are to be treated as zero, Excel provides the functions AVERAGEA and COUNTA. There is, of course, no need for a SUMA function, since SUM always treats non-numeric data as zero. (b) Enter the text in F7 and copy F2 G5 to F8. In F9 type '2 .The apostrophe before the digit makes this a textual entry Excel In this exercise we experiment with some of the trigonometric functions which occur in many physical problems. These include SIN, COS and TAN and their inverses ASIN, ACOS and AT AN. It is important that the user remembers that all computer applications use radians not degrees for angles in trig functions. Since a full circle contains 2tc radians and this is equivalent to 360 degrees, the...

## Anatomy of a Chart objects

It is most important that you understand that the smooth line is not necessarily the line of best fit. In general the smooth line is a cubic spline which is a series of curves constructed to join seamlessly. The line of best fit is called the trendline in Excel. We explore this in the next chapter.

## Exercise 3 Entering a Function Directly

New Excel 2002 feature (a) In D5 of Sheet 1 ofCHAP4.XLS, type MAX(A1 A3) and press the check mark of the formula bar. Note that had we typed max(a1 a3), Excel would automatically change the function name and cell addresses to upper case when we completed the formula. (b) To see another way of entering cell references, delete the contents of D3. Type MAX( and use the mouse to highlight the range A1 A3. Note that we have 'forgotten' the closing parenthesis. Now click the check mark on the formula bar. Microsoft Excel automatically adds the closing parenthesis. This is called the AutoCorrect feature. At other times when the correction is not quite so obvious, Excel displays a dialog box with a suggested correction which you must confirm by clicking OK. In other cases, Excel will not be able to make a suggestion and will tell you there is a formula error. Of course, Excel is able to detect only syntax errors not logical errors. If you enter SUM(A1 A100) mistakenly for SUM(A1 A200), there...

## Exercise 1 Copy and Paste

In this exercise we will copy data and a chart from an Excel workbook to a document you are writing with a word processor application such as Microsoft1 Word or Corel11 WordPerfect. We need a simple workbook with data and a chart. Let us assume we have run an experiment to find the value of a resistor by measuring the currents passing through the resistor when various voltages are applied. Since V R, the slope of a plot of vs Kwill be 1 7 . (a) Open a new Excel workbook. Enter the data shown in A1 B11 of Figure 15.1. The cell Bll contains the formula 1 OOC) SLOPE(B4 B9, A4 A9) where the factor of 1000 accounts for the fact that the current was measured in milliamps. (d) Without closing Excel, open your word processor. Put some text into a new document as in Figure 15.2 but without the table or chart. New to Excel 2002 Microsoft Excel Chart C Bernard xbook ExcelBootcsV< chap 15. xls< fis Microsoft Excel Chart C Bernard xbook ExcelBootcsV< chap 15. xls< fis Inserts the contents...

## Concepts

Note Cell reference is the correct term to use when speaking about, for example, A1 or G20. You may find books that use the term cell address. However, this is a term that is never used in Microsoft documentation. It was used by Lotus 1-2-3, a spreadsheet application that preceded Microsoft Excel. Surprisingly, Excel does have a worksheet function called ADDRESS that returns a cell reference Do not use the term name in place of references later in this chapter we will learn that this term has a very specific use in Excel.

## Report Writing

In this chapter we learn how to place Microsoft Excel workbook data and charts into a word processor document. There are two very different ways to do this (i) using copy and paste, or (ii) with Object Linking and Embedding (OLE). We will examine these methods in detail in the exercises. The algorithm below will help you choose the appropriate method.

## Worksheet

Sooner or later you will wish to print your Microsoft Excel worksheet so we will examine this topic now although we have hardly scratched the surface of Excel. In this chapter we will see how to print all the used area or a selected part of a worksheet. We will also explore various options such as changing the header and footers on a printed page, removing the gridlines, having the column and row headings in the printout and making the selected print area fit one page of paper. (a) To begin this exercise we will open the file which was saved in the previous chapter. Open the File menu and look at the bottom. Excel saves the names of the user's last four workbooks. Click on CHAP2.XLS to open your workbook. If you are working on a network, or if you have worked on other files since doing the exercises in Chapter I, the name of this file may not be present. Use the menu item File Open to locate the appropriate folder and select CHAP2.XLS. You may wish to type your name in an empty cell...

## Assumptions

(d) Enter the value l in the Flag cell and press F9 . The rvalues will change. Repeatedly tap F9 I and Microsoft Excel will repeat the calculation. After a number of iterations (20 or so), the values will cease to change and will be as shown in Figure 13.6. You may wish to check that the temperature of each internal point is the average of its nearest neighbours.

## Figure

With this setting in effect, whenever you open an Excel file that contains a macro the dialog box shown in Figure 8.2 will be displayed. Clicking Enable Macros will allow you to use the functions that we are developing in this chapter. (a) The VBE is reached from Excel with the command Tools Macro Visual Basic Editor or the shortcut fAitl+jTlTl. Figure 8.3 shows a screen capture of this window.

## Solving Equations

Microsoft Excel includes two tools (Goal Seek and Solver) for finding roots. A discussion of the algorithms used by these tools is beyond the scope of this book but if you are familiar with the bisection or the Newton-Raphson method you will have some appreciation of how they work. We show in the first exercise how the bisection, or interval halving, method may be implemented on a worksheet. It is left as an exercise to the interested reader to develop a worksheet implementation of the Newton-Raphson method. Subsequent exercises use Goal Seek and Solver to find approximate roots. To demonstrate how we may implement this algorithm in Excel, we shall find the roots of the function exp(-*) - sin(x). Figure 10.2 shows a plot of this function for values of * from 0 to 4. On row 24 with * 0.588533, the function evaluates to 8 * 10 8 which is acceptably close to 0. The values in the A and B columns are not changing very much at this point. You may wish to copy row 24 down to row 50. At this...

## Figure 153

If you need to copy the same Excel object many times, the Windows Clipboard can be inconvenient. Recall that an Excel object remains on the Windows Clipboard only while the object is selected - in the case of a range, only while the 'ant track' is present. The Office Clipboard may be used to hold up to 24 objects and they are all available in the various Office components. The command Edit Office Clipboard may be used to display the Office Clipboard as a panel in each application.

## Least squares fit

There are more precise ways of determining the line of best fit for linear data. The experimental data consists of pairs of x and y values. We write the equation of the line of best fit as j> mx + b, where p (read as 'y hat') is the predicted value. The least squares criterion requires that we adjust the constants m and b such that the quantity 2(y -ff is as small as possible. The required calculations are tedious. Fortunately, spreadsheets relieve us of the problem. We will explore some of the Microsoft Excel features relating to curve fitting in this chapter and again in Chapters 10 and 14. We will start with exercises using the examples above. Microsoft Excel has a feature for plotting the line of best fit on an XY chart. This is called the trendline. In this exercise we will see how to add a trendline and how to extend it. In the subsequent exercise we will learn how to display on the chart the equation of this line of best fit. (d) By default, Excel draws trendlines with a...

## Figure 828

XLSTART is a subfolder of the folder EXCEL in which Excel was installed, generally this will be C Program FilesNMicrosoft OfficeNOffice 1 ONExcel. If the workbook containing the modules is placed in the XSTART folder it will automatically open every time Microsoft Excel is started. To make it less obtrusive, use Window Hide before you save the workbook. When it is opened next time it will be invisible. A hidden file can be made visible again from the Window menu. (ii) Return to the Excel window and use File Properties. On the Summary, give the file a descriptive title and add a documentary remark in the Comment field. (iii) Use File Save As and in the Type box select Microsoft Excel Add-in (it is the last item). The file will be saved with the extension XLA. A number of companies market Microsoft Excel add-ins. For example, one add-in contains functions for performing massmole chemistry calculations. You may find some shareware add-ins by searching the World Wide Web.

## Figure 156

(f) Move to the worksheet and right click the chart. Select Source Data and open the Series tab. Add a new series with -values as E1 and -values as F1. Add another new series with A12 as the -values and B12 as the -values. Since there is no data in these cells, the chart is unchanged. But as far as Excel is To use Microsoft Excel interactive data on the Web, your users must have Microsoft Office XP or access to an Office XP licence and the Office Web Components installed. Furthermore, there are some limitations you should learn about before developing a large web page. In Excel Help search with the word Guidelines and open the topic Guidelines and limitations for saving or publishing Web pages. Strangely, this topic does not show when the phrase web Note the use of the colons in SumRange to place two statements on one line. The formula LN(FUNC(A3)) may be used to compare the Stirling approximation with the exact value. When A3 is 100, the approximation gives 360.5 while the exact...

## 75 Predictor Model Training

For the naphtha 95 cut point and naphtha Reid vapor pressure stream properties, the plant data, including the stream quality desired to predict, are collected in a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet to facilitate data manipulation. The data are then scaled to a fraction of the transmitter range so that they are confined to a sub-interval of 0 1 . A practical region for the data is chosen to be 0.1.0.9 . In this case each input or output parameter p is normalized as pn before being applied to the neural network according to

## Revised McCabe Thiele Diagram For Relative Volatilities under 125

For relative volatilities under 1.25 the McCabe-Thiele plot is difficult to use because all the lines are very close together. Fortunately Ryan3 gives us an alternate procedure for relative volatilities in the troublesome area below 1.25. Figure 1 shows the typical McCabe-Thiele diagram compared to Ryan's alternate plot in Figure 2. These figures have been graciously provided by Mr. Ryan from his Microsoft Excel files and are printed unchanged.

## How is this implemented

For an objective to be established it has to be communicated, translated into action and become the focus of all achievement. Objectives are not wish lists. The starting point is the purpose and mission statement and the factors identified as affecting the ability of the organization to accomplish its mission. It is in these areas the organization needs to excel and therefore they become the focus for action and consequently the setting of objectives. Although ISO 9000 suggests that the quality objectives should be based on the quality policy, it is more likely to be current performance, competition and opportunities arising from new technology that drive the objectives. The setting of objectives is addressed further under Quality objectives (5.4.1).

## 7312 Performing a Process Scoping Analysis

Figure 7.3-1 outlines steps in the scoping process. However, if this information is to be gathered, it should be in a convenient form such as collecting the data as a computer file in a notebook personal computer. The file may be a word processor, a spreadsheet, or a database. If the input is into a word processor such as WordPerfect or Word, it may be in table format. Very similar but with greater computational capabilities is a spreadsheet such as Excel or QuatroPro. A database program such as Access or dBase allows even greater flexibility in storage, formatting, and printing the report, but has less direct access to the data, and computational capabilities. A preferred method is inputting the data into a spreadsheet because of the ease in performing the calculations and the flexibility regarding the number of columns which may be off the screen but accessible by scrolling.

## Failure Rates Incidents and Human Factors Data

The distribution disk with this book includes a folder entitled BNLDATA which contains the file bnlgener.xls, a spreadsheet in EXCEL format. It is a collection of failure rate data drawn from many sources. The file refern.txt contains the references to the table's data. There are 1,311 data entries many cite different estimates by different organizations for the failure rate of the same

## Physically Challenged

There are many different ways to design and build a facility. The owner can use in-house engineering staff to design and the facilities department to construct. Proper administration of even modest construction projects can require more than five experienced full-time employees. Design of small projects can be accomplished by one registered professional in the firm with the help of specialized staff. Most manufacturing firms will not have an appropriate staff to cope with the time constraints and will therefore hire design professionals. Experienced A& E firms can provide the expertise and personnel to complete hundreds of design documents in a relatively short time. One aspect of their contract requirements should be for them to provide accurate documentation of the existing facility (if not already available), and for them to turn over to the owner a complete set of hard copies and software copies of the design documents when completed. It is common for firms to generate...

Linearize the plotting positions and provide values for the x- and j-axes in the last two columns. The plotted results are shown in Figure 4.49 where the best straight line through the data has been determined using MS Excel. The correlation coefficient, r, is calculated to be 0.998 and indicates that there is a strong relationship between the 2-parameter Weibull distribution and the load frequency distribution.

## 332 Workspaces in the Design Process

Lastly, a glance indicates the attention. We noted in an Excel file (extracted Table 33.1) the moment of the observation, and for each actor its attention, either on an object, or on another actor, the action carried out, the number of the IO, and the space where this object is.

## 32 Kinematics of a 5Axis Milling Machine

These three types of 5-axis configurations are illustrated in Fig. 3.2. The other possible configurations such as TRTTR are generally not used because of the difficulty in designing a machine with a mixture of rotational and linear axes that meets the stiffness requirements for a milling machine. Each of the configurations shown has its own advantages and disadvantages. The wrist type machines are the simplest to program, can be built to accommodate very large workpieces, but tend to be less rigid than the other configurations. They are best suited to surface machining. Tilt-rotary table type machines excel at 5-sided machining and tend to be stiffer than other configurations. However, they are more prone to setup error and may not be able to accept large workpieces.

## Nonlinear Regression Using The Solver

In this chapter, the Microsoft Solver Excel's powerful optimization package is used to perform non-linear least squares curve fitting. Procedures for using the Solver are illustrated in Appendix B. The Solver provides results that are comparable with those from the commercial software packages. The Solver determines the sets of least-squares regression coefficients very quickly and efficiently. The slight differences between the Solver and commercial software packages arise from the fact that the coefficients are found by a search method the final values will differ depending on the convergence criteria used in each program. A non-linear regression analysis is employed using the Solver in Microsoft Excel spreadsheet to determine the values of Km and Vmax in the following examples. Example 1-5 (Chapter 1) involves the enzymatic reaction in the conversion of urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide and Example 11-1 deals with the interconversion of D-glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate and...

## Technical books in alphabetical order

Professor Howe taught many students at Cranfield College of Aeronautics (later university) and this book reflects his extensive understanding of his experience. It is a very useful text covering detail design and synthesis in a readable format. It contains a case study of the design of a feeder liner and is accompanied with a PC CDROM with Excel spreadsheet programs. The book concludes with four design examples (aerobatic piston-engined trainer, twin-turboprop airliner, reconnaissance UAV and a supersonic STOVL fighter). Along with G. C. Oates' book in the same series this is the best book on engine design for performance and engine aircraft integration. The format of the book is specifically tailored to the teaching of design and the development of the design process as applied to propulsion aspects. There is an excellent section on the use of constraint analysis in aircraft design. An excellent book, describing in detail the fundamental principles underpinning the initial design of...

## Wavelength film thickness

Both SWE and reflectometry excel when the sample of interest is a single film on a substrate. For samples with two layers on a substrate, both SWE and reflectometry can be used if many of the optical parameters are known, with only a few to be determined. These are special cases, however. Spectroscopic ellipsometry, on the other hand, is designed specifically to be used with multiple layers (Ref 13).

## Effect Of Micromixing On Conversion

Generally, empirical models involving micromixing should be viewed with caution because it is difficult to obtain valid correlations for the parameters in the absence of sound experimental data. Also, a model may not provide a unique measure of micromixing except for the specific system being studied. Micromixing is a complex phenomenon, which cannot be easily characterized by one or more adjustable parameters. A model with few parameters might provide an excellent fit for one reaction and a poor fit for another reaction that occurs in the same vessel. A comprehensive discussion and analyses on micromixing are provided by Nauman and Buffham 10 , and Wen and Fan 11 . Using the macromixing Equation 9-10, an Excel spreadsheet (Example9-1.xls) was developed that gives CA CAO 0.11. In terms of conversion, XA 0.89 or 89 conversion. Thus, the simulation of the actual reactor suggests that it is less efficient than a plug flow reactor. This may be due to several factors such as channeling or...

## 6 Pilot to Cut and Cut to Pilot Transfers

Lincoln's Pro-Cut products excel at this process because they employ Dual Winding Technology . This technology utilizes two separate power systems (windings) one tailored for pilot arcs, the other for cutting. This patented configuration creates the nozzle to work voltage potential without a large resistor. Additionally, the control system can rapidly select which winding is required for the task. The result is instantaneous positive transfers from up to V away from the work. At the end of the cut, the control system maintains the arc by instantly retracting back into a pilot arc.

## Regression on Rankits

If the data are normally distributed, or have been transformed to make them normal, the probabili-ties(p) are converted to rankits (normal order scores), Rj F '(pi) where F_1 is the inverse cumulative normal probability distribution and pt is the plotting position of the ith ranked observation. The rankits can be calculated (using the NORMSINV function in EXCEL) or looked up in standard statistical tables (for n < 50). The analysis could also be done using probits, which are obtained by adding five to the rankits to eliminate the negative values.

## Design analysis for material selection

The applications in which a new material will excel are those in which the match between its property profile and that of the application are particularly good. This chapter describes how property profiles are established. The Appendix to this Guide lists material-property groups linked with a range of generic applications. Metal foams have large values of some of these property groups and poor values of others, suggesting where applications might be sought.

## Example fitting a Normal distribution to a set of existing data

(Commercial software such as MS Excel is useful in this connection being widely available.) Omissions in the ranked values of Ft in Table 4.2 reflect the omissions of the data in the original histogram for several classes. As can be judged from Figure 4.10, inclusion of the cumulative probabilities for these classes would not follow the natural pattern of the distribution and are therefore omitted. However, when a very low number of classes exist their inclusion can be justified.

## 811Performance Measures

The main measures of performance in servo systems are noise generation, disturbance response, command response, and stability. Servo systems excel in command and disturbance response. Servomotors are often the technology of choice in discrete operations, where the moves must be rapid, and in continuous operations, where the system must hold constant speed in the presence of disturbances.

## An Integrating Case Studyammonia Synthesis

Additionally, solutions to problems are presented in the text and the accompanying CD contains computer programs (Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and software) for solving modeling problems using numerical methods. The CD also contains colored snapshots on computational fluid mixing in a reactor. Additionally, the CD contains the appendices and conversion table software.

## 4 Mass module

The mass module determines the overall mass breakdown for the aircraft. This module is generally iterative as many specific mass items are dependent on the maximum take-off mass of the aircraft. An initial estimate of the maximum takeoff mass is provided and the user can iterate this value manually to arrive at a final answer. Convergence will normally be completed after approximately ten attempts. Alternatively, the solver facilities available in many modern spreadsheet programs may be used to rapidly determine the maximum take-off mass. For particularly complex spreadsheet models the built-in solvers are sometimes unable to determine a solution. In such cases, macros may be generated to automate the iteration. An example macro for this task using Visual Basic (Microsoft Excel) is shown below

## Data handling

Alternatively, polynomial interpolation, used frequently for procedural programs, may be applied to spreadsheet methods. A user-defined function is used to read in the tabular data from a specified worksheet and then determine the required value for the input parameters provided. A method adapted from Fortran2 and suitable for use with Microsoft Excel is shown below

## Resources

The latest version of MS Project can carry out Earned Value calculations, but unfortunately to view the all-important control curves showing the relationship between Actual, Planned and Earned Value, the data must be exported to Microsoft Excel with the aid of a Wizard. It is also possible to model cross-project dependencies by dragging and dropping between the two sets of bars in the different Gantt charts.

## 221 104 158 104

The cooling time in a full-scale batch reactor is 1.27 hr, which is approximately 49 more than the 0.85 hr predicted at the smaller scale. Multiple temperature adjustment steps occur in a chemical reactor production cycle. The sum of these cycle time increases may be significant, and the plant capacity at the larger scale may be adversely affected if the cycle times are not corrected 13 . An Excel spreadsheet (EXAMPLE 13-2.xls) was developed for Example 13-2.

## HTML and XML

XML is a standard, so most software can be adapted to work with it. The future of XML is to allow applications of all types to exchange data on the Web intelligently. XML is likely to be used in other ways as well. In Office 2000, Microsoft is supporting XML as a file format, so Microsoft Word or Excel documents and files could be viewed in any XML-complaint browser.

## Quality control QC

Table 2.2 Comparison between ISO 9000 and Business Excellence Principles Business Excellence Concepts The behaviour of an organization's leaders creates a clarity and unity of purpose within the organization and an environment in which the organization and its people can excel. Business Excellence Concepts Excellence is dependent upon balancing and satisfying the needs of all relevant stakeholders.