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## Developing a cost model for automated electronic spreadsheets may involve three estimating strategies R D Green Energy

Developing a cost model (e.g., an automated electronic spreadsheet) for pipelines, stations and terminals, which provides a probability estimate of cost, may involve the use of three estimating strategies. For example, the variability in cost for many cost factors may be so limited that it is feasible

## Example spreadsheet

A simple automated electronic spreadsheet example is provided (with software). It illustrates the use of lookup tables as a means of accessing a built-in data base. In this example, a rule of thumb estimate3 is used for estimating the probability distribution of pipeline construction costs in several cost areas. An overall distribution is obtained by using the procedure described above (three-point estimate approach). The estimated probability distribution for the grand total cost of the project is used in a step to assess the probability that the project cost is less than a given bid price. Given relatively few inputs (year of construction, pipeline diameter and length), and a limited database, this simple automated electronic spreadsheet finds point, range and probability estimates for several cost areas. The expected grand total cost G 4,561,905.74 is surrounded by considerable uncertainty. In a full-scale automated electronic spreadsheet, the variance surrounding the cost factors...

## Exercise 2 Entering and Copying a Formula

(a) On Sheet 1 of the CHAP2.XLS workbook, in B4 type the formula to convert Fahrenheit to Celsius, i.e. (5 9) * (A4 - 32). Do not overlook the equal sign. The spaces around the operators are optional but they do make the formula more readable. If you type lowercase letters for a cell reference, Microsoft Excel automatically converts them to uppercase. The cell displays the value 10. If you make B4 the active cell, you will see (5 9) * (A4 - 32) in the formula bar.

## 47 Project Measures Of Worth

As appealing as the flexibility of this approach is, their are two major drawbacks. First, the iterations required to solve using the trial and error approach to solution can be time consuming. This factor is mitigated by the fact that most spreadsheets and financial calculators are pre-programmed to solve for an IRR value given a cash flow series. The second, and more serious, drawback to the IRR approach is that some cash flow series have more than one value of IRR (i.e., more than one value of i sets the PW expression to zero). A detailed discussion of this multiple solution issue is beyond the scope of this chapter, but can be found in White, et al. 1998 , as well as most other economic analysis references. However, it can be shown that, if a cash flow series consists of an initial investment (negative cash flow at t 0) followed by a series of future returns (positive or zero cash flows for all t> 0) then a unique IRR exists. If these conditions are not satisfied a unique IRR is...

## 221 Existing and competitive aircraft

Systematically go through this list, progressively gathering information and data on each aircraft. A spreadsheet is the best way of recording numerical values for common parameters (e.g. wing area, installed thrust, aircraft weights (or masses), etc.). A database is a good way to record other textural data on the aircraft (e.g. when first designed and flown, how many sold and to whom, etc.). The geometrical and technical data can be used to obtain derived parameters (e.g. wing loading, thrust to weight ratio, empty weight fraction, etc.). Such data will be used to assist subsequent technical design work. It is possible, using the graph plotting facilities of modern spreadsheet programs, to plot such parameters for use in the initial sizing of the aircraft. For instance, a graph showing wing loading against thrust loading for all your aircraft will be useful in selecting specimen aircraft to be used in comparison with your design. Such a plot also allows

## 265Aircraft performance

The results from the performance estimates are compared to the aircraft requirements. It is now that the original estimates for wing area and thrust are re-evaluated. Changes in these values are often necessary to obtain aircraft performance to meet the requirements. It is essential that new values for wing area and engine thrust are selected that allow such compliance but not too much in excess as this will make the design inefficient. As aircraft mass, drag, lift and engine characteristics are directly affected by changes in wing and engine size it will be necessary to repeat all the previous initial estimates for the baseline aircraft. This is a laborious task but the use of modern spreadsheet methods does assist in such iterative processes.

## Computer Exercises

The spreadsheet Lotus 1-2-3 is convenient for calculating the amount of decay of a radioactive sample in a given time. Program DECAY 1 has input of the original number of curies and the half-life it calculates the final number of curies. Load the program, examine its form, and look at the results for the decay in 100 y of cesium-137, half-life 30.2 y. Then change input, e.g., x 302 y (10 half-lives), or enter figures for another radionuclide such as cobalt- 60.

## Exercise 7 Changing Axis Crossings

There are times when we wish to change where one axis crosses the other. In Figure 6.21 we have plotted a series of negatives-values. The default for a Microsoft Excel chart is for the x-axis to cross the -axis as shown in the left-hand chart. Most of us would prefer the right-hand chart.

## 3 Geometric calculations

The geometric calculations module determines the detailed geometry from the basic data input. These calculations include determination of wetted areas, mean aerodynamic chords, etc. Methodology described earlier in the book Figs 7.19 and 8.2(b) may be used, together with standard geometrical methods. Output may be checked directly using the built-in graphing capabilities of spreadsheet packages. Figure 15.2 shows the determination of equivalent wing planform for a cranked trailing edge wing, along with the mean aerodynamic chord (MAC) for both the actual and equivalent wing planforms. Fig. 15.2 Presentation of wing geometry using built-in spreadsheet facilities. Fig. 15.2 Presentation of wing geometry using built-in spreadsheet facilities.

## 7312 Performing a Process Scoping Analysis

Preparing a Spreadsheet for Toxic Hazards Figure 7.3-1 outlines steps in the scoping process. However, if this information is to be gathered, it should be in a convenient form such as collecting the data as a computer file in a notebook personal computer. The file may be a word processor, a spreadsheet, or a database. If the input is into a word processor such as WordPerfect or Word, it may be in table format. Very similar but with greater computational capabilities is a spreadsheet such as Excel or QuatroPro. A database program such as Access or dBase allows even greater flexibility in storage, formatting, and printing the report, but has less direct access to the data, and computational capabilities. A preferred method is inputting the data into a spreadsheet because of the ease in performing the calculations and the flexibility regarding the number of columns which may be off the screen but accessible by scrolling. Table 7.3.1-1 A Spreadsheet for Scoping Analysis Data

## Initial Constraint Analysis And Adjustments

Spreadsheet Analysis Once validation is complete, prescreen-ing the measurements using the process constraints as the comparison statistic is particularly useful. This is the first step in the global test discussed in the rectification section. Also, an initial adjustment in component flows will provide the initial point for reconciliation. Therefore, the goals of this prescreening are to ances for the unit. Specifically designed spreadsheets are particularly useful during this step. The level of sophistication depends upon the analysts' goals. Spreadsheets can be used for pretreatment of measurements, constraint analysis, and measurement adjustment. Oftentimes, the more sophisticated reconciliation and rectification methods are not warranted or will not provide any better results, particularly when a single unit is under analysis. A straightforward, generic analysis spreadsheet for this tower is shown in Fig. 30-18. For this example, the three stream compositions and the total flows...

## Unconventional designs

Unconventional designs are often difficult to analyse using traditional design programs that are inflexible. In contrast the modular layout of a spreadsheet aircraft design program and the rapid development time, allow the model to be tailored to the requirements of the unconventional design study. This study was made possible due to the availability of a wing mass formula for multi-hull aircraft. This was incorporated into the spreadsheet model developed for the regional airliner and updated for application to large, long-haul aircraft. The revised model was first validated on large aircraft such as the Boeing 747-400 before being applied to three aircraft with different fuselage configurations.

## Observations and conclusion

The advantage of a well-developed electronic spreadsheet is that it can automatically maintain historically based data in the form of, for example, histograms that may be sampled later on to extract information. This supports future efforts to obtain probability estimates for cost factors. The system may accommodate inflation rates that vary among the cost factors. These probability estimates enable the estimator to communicate information about the project risks and the uncertainty of the estimate so that the right risks can be taken by the

## Column Line Explanation

FORMULA or is automatically calculated if using the What If spreadsheet. 1-5 FORMULA or is automatically calculated if using the What If spreadsheet. FORMULA 10-39 The formulas used for calculating. These formulas may also be used to create a spreadsheet similar to 'What If.'

## 893 Field performance

The calculations for each of the cases above require an analysis of the forces on the aircraft (weight, lift, drag, thrust and ground friction). Our previous estimations of mass, aerodynamic and propulsion characteristics are sufficient to use as input to the analysis. The prediction of take-off and landing distances requires a step-by-step calculation which can be done using a spreadsheet application method.

## Temperature KXA MassXA Heat

The spreadsheet calculation and Figure 6-25 shows profiles of the conversion at varying effluent temperature. The steady states values in Figure 6-25 are (XA,T) (0.02, 300), (0.32, 335), and (0.88, 405). The middle point is unstable and the last point is the most desirable because of the high conversion.

## Approximate calculation of SES static transverse stability on cushion

At the preliminary design stage, computer methods (apart from spreadsheet calculations) cannot be adopted because the offsets and some main parameters of the craft are lacking. Therefore the following relationship deduced from experimental results from Hovermarine SES craft 42 can help

## 116 Determination of hovercraft principal dimensions

In such a case, it is possible to plot systematic changes in the parameters chosen to find the extreme value as a function of multiple variables. Since the functional relations between the parameters concerned with the craft performance and the ratio of principal dimensions have not been established analytically, and in addition, nowadays, it is straightforward to create a spreadsheet on a computer, such problems can be solved fairly simply and quickly. Therefore, the variation method may rapidly home in on an optimum craft design, based on the restrictive parameters and role functions above, using parameters such as those discussed below. The parameters that have the greatest effect on the performance of craft are as follows

## Step 2 Preparation of Screening Tools

Screening tools are standardized methods of analyzing opportunities using a mixture of site-specific parameters (such as utility rates) and typical performance characteristics to narrow the field of practical measures in an efficient but reliable manner. Such tools include spreadsheet rate programs capable of quickly determining incremental costs for any change in energy or resource consumption, lighting simulations, cost databases, manual nomographs, and application-specific spreadsheet programs. The rate programs should also be capable of producing various graphs and indices of usage profiles and unit costs. Usage profile graphics are very useful in assessing characteristics such as load factor and daily, weekly, and monthly usage variation. They can also produce meaningful indices, such as cost and usage per square foot and incremental costs (e.g., kWh, Btu). This type of analysis lends itself to comparison with a database of similar type and size facilities. For large enough...

## A word of warning and some advice

For our blended-body layout, without the need for extra control surfaces, the component build-up involves only the wing surfaces and some allowance for the central body profile. Using a spreadsheet method, it is possible to determine parasitic drag for various combinations of altitude and speed. The following constants were used in the evaluation

## 514 Single Shaft MT Cycle Analysis

Thermodynamic performance of open cycle Brayton recuperated cycle small gas turbines is discussed in standard thermodynamics textbooks and by Rodgers (1993, 1997). However, it is important to understand the basics because a standard cycle analysis is the first step in analyzing the effects of all key parameters on MT performance. The analysis can be set up in a spreadsheet where parametric effects can be readily calculated.

## Consideration of Inflation

Capital recovery factor (CRF) is the reciprocal of the PVF. It is used to calculate future equal payments required to repay a PV of money over a specified number of periods at a given interest rate. This is used to determine mortgage payment and can be found in a table of annual capital recovery factors or determined using computer spreadsheet functions. CRF can be expressed as

## 761Plant activities and intercommunications

Table 7.1 shows the construction of a typical activity chart using one of many computer spreadsheet packages. The cross (+) identifies an activity in the plant and stars (*) in the vertical lines denote where access to other activities is needed or an interrelationship exists. A wide scattering of the stars away from the diagonal line of crosses indicates large distances between the activities and thus large communicating distances. A feature of PC spreadsheets is that the position of rows or columns can be changed at the touch of a key, so the sequence of the rows of activities can be rapidly altered, and the position of the columns varied to preserve the diagonal pattern of crosses. This exercise can be executed a number of times to reduce the scatter of the stars away from the diagonal line and reduce the communicating distances between the activities. This has been carried out, and the result is shown in Table 7.2, where it can be seen that the stars are clustered more closely...

## 73 Layout planning concepts

The introduction of computers to many companies allows proprietary software to be used for layout design.5 Spreadsheet, mathematical modeling and computer-aided design (CAD) techniques are available and greatly assist the design process, and have added to the resources available to planners. However, the traditional scale models described above will still be useful to present the result to management and shop floor personnel.

## Failure Rates Incidents and Human Factors Data

The distribution disk with this book includes a folder entitled BNLDATA which contains the file bnlgener.xls, a spreadsheet in EXCEL format. It is a collection of failure rate data drawn from many sources. The file refern.txt contains the references to the table's data. There are 1,311 data entries many cite different estimates by different organizations for the failure rate of the same

## 2 Atmospheric conditions

Also the cruise condition (altitude, Atemp) . Other mission segments may require further atmospheric conditions to be determined. A spreadsheet module suitable for calculations in both the troposphere and stratosphere is shown in Fig. 15.1. Note, in this example variable names have not been used as the module is reasonably compact.

## Sensitivity Analysis

Effects will be caused by variations from what was projected. A sensitivity analysis, once performed, may influence the decision about the financial project, or at least show the decision maker which parameter is the most critical to the financial success of the project. The NPV method lends itself nicely to sensitivity analysis, since the discount rate is already fixed at the opportunity cost of capital. One parameter at a time can be varied in steps (while the other parameters are held constant) to see how much effect this variance has on NPV A financial calculator or computer spreadsheet program will greatly expedite the multiple, repetitive calculations involved in this analysis. Plotting the results graphically will help show the sensitivity of NPV to changes in each variable, as illustrated in the following example.

## Example of Geographical Site Selection

Let us assume that three sites are being considered after preliminary evaluation of more than 10 potential locations across the nation. We can create a spreadsheet comparing the potential for net profits as determined by overall long-term expenses. If sales forecasts are reliable, actual projections can be used. Selecting the right planning horizon for cost accounting is critical and will depend on changing laws. For this example we will use 10-year, straight-line depreciation on equipment and buildings, and focus more on the direct-cost side. We will also assume that the list of potential sites has been narrowed to the best three. The paragraphs to follow give brief descriptions of the features of the three. They are in Arizona, California, and West Virginia. The information attributed to each is provided for the sake of illustrating the methodology for site selection. Actual data are available only through research at the time. The information is summarized in spreadsheet form in...

## Step 3 System Performance and Energy Usage

Chilled water use and condenser water temperatures, a basic spreadsheet format can be used to distribute actual equipment energy usage requirements under varying loads for varying periods. By assigning hours of use at each loading level, total annual energy usage can be calculated. In order to determine operating costs under varying energy rate periods, the hours need to be broken out separately for each billing time-of-use period. Total consumption, therefore, reflects the amount of energy consumed over all of the hours the system operates at each specified percentage of total capacity output.

## Step 4 Baseline Determination

The baseline operating cost can be determined by entering the usage and demand by month and rate period into a utility or fuel cost rate program. Energy rates can either be programmed directly into simulation modeling, or model outputs imported to a spreadsheet rate calculation program. In either case, the annual baseline costs for the facility should be reconciled with the actual billing records. Either the billing records should be normalized to analysis conditions, or analysis outputs adjusted to the conditions experienced during the actual billing periods. In either case, if the analysis output cannot be reconciled with actual billing histories, the entire process must be reviewed, with certain assumptions recalibrated as appropriate. The goal is to develop an analytical process that can deliver reliable and reproducible results. While it may not be possible to identify all of the specific factors that resulted in a particular year's energy costs (i.e., occupancy patterns,...

## Optimization Techniques

The maximum profit problem for a column operated at constant distillate composition involves the evaluation of the net profit of the column along its batch run time. The net profit function behaviour has already been discussed. The profit curve displays an extrema and the profit optimization problem therefore seeks the value of the batch run time (a number) that will maximize the net profit function. It is amenable to a simple graphic solution that can be obtained from a spreadsheet as long as a simple zero hold-up model is employed to describe the column operation. On the other hand, the solution of the maximum distillate problem is given by a time-dependent function (the distillate flow rate) that will maximize the cumulative distillate production, a function of the distillate flow rate. This latter function of another function is called a functional.

## Summary of initial estimates

The method employed has been devised to show whether any of the initial requirements are dominant and the effect of relaxing such requirements. It is based on the premise that the passenger capacity, cruise speed and the design range are fixed. The passenger capacity and cruise speed are determined by the market requirements and the design range by the geography of the area in which the particular type of aircraft under consideration will be operating. The weight and drag methodology of Chapters 7 and 8 along with the performance methods of Chapter 10 are required. If these methods are programmed on spreadsheets, variations of wing area, engine size and take-off mass can be easily assessed.

## Step 1 Selecting the Appropriate Analytical Tools

The first step in the Detailed Feasibility Study is to select the appropriate analytical tools. While these may have been partially determined during the preliminary study phase, they must be reassessed based on the results of the Preliminary Feasibility Study. Given the complete range of analytical tools available (from simple spreadsheets to customized engineering calculations to detailed hourly simulation programs), the experience of the study team will be drawn upon to perform feasibility studies that produce efficient effort with accurate results. The level of analytical complexity and, therefore, the cost of that effort must be justified by the level of certainty achievable and the potential for savings at the facility.

## 781 Computer Assisted Cost Estimating

Without computer assistance, the manufacturing cost estimator must spend a great deal of time performing what are essentially clerical functions. These include researching data files, making many long and arduous arithmetical calculations and extensions, filling out spreadsheets and forms, running copies of originals, and much more. Not only is this very poor utilization of a skilled professional's time, it increases the possibility of error dramatically. With computer assistance, the cost estimating professional can spend the majority of time on basic estimating tasks that fully utilize experience and skill. These

## Introduction to the project studies

The design process has been described in detail in the previous chapters. All the steps that are necessary to successfully complete the preliminary design stages have been identified. The amount of effort and time spent in each stage depends on the overall schedule for the project. It is essential to complete the process with a feasible baseline design, therefore it is necessary to programme and manage the work in association with all other commitments. Although the design method has been shown as a sequential process, it is possible to run some of the steps in parallel. It is also possible to do some preparation work (e.g. develop estimating methods and spreadsheets) ahead of the later stages. This is particularly useful if the project is to be done by a group, or team, of people. In such cases, it would be essential to allocate all tasks and to set a rigid timetable for the completion of the work (see Chapter 11 for more details on team working).

## Nonlinear Regression Using The Solver

A non-linear regression analysis is employed using the Solver in Microsoft Excel spreadsheet to determine the values of Km and Vmax in the following examples. Example 1-5 (Chapter 1) involves the enzymatic reaction in the conversion of urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide and Example 11-1 deals with the interconversion of D-glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate. The Solver (EXAMPLE 11 - 1.xls and EXAMPLE 11-3.xls) uses the Michaelis-Menten (MM) formula to compute vcal. The residual sums of squares between vobs and vcal is then calculated. Using guessed values of Km and Vmax, the Solver uses a search optimization technique to determine MM parameters. The values of Km and Vmax in Example 11-1 are

## Technical books in alphabetical order

Professor Howe taught many students at Cranfield College of Aeronautics (later university) and this book reflects his extensive understanding of his experience. It is a very useful text covering detail design and synthesis in a readable format. It contains a case study of the design of a feeder liner and is accompanied with a PC CDROM with Excel spreadsheet programs. The book concludes with four design examples (aerobatic piston-engined trainer, twin-turboprop airliner, reconnaissance UAV and a supersonic STOVL fighter).

## Evaluating Design For Upgradeability A Simulation Based Approach For Ships And Marine Products

Major engineering products like ships, offshore plant and power stations have lives of over 20 years. Technical and market changes may require mid-life upgrading, such as increasing capacity by jumboisation or installing new machinery or equipment. The question for the designer is how far to design for such upgradeability, e.g. by provision of additionally unused space or more powerful equipment than is required initially. A methodology has been developed for evaluating whether designs incorporating some upgrade capability from the start may be more economic than those which do not. A range of upgrade scenarios from 'bare minimum' to 'over-engineered' can be evaluated to show which are likely to show the greatest economic benefit in terms of NPV over the life cycle of the product. Since this depends on a probabilistic view of say market demand, a simulation model is needed to compare the alternatives. A spreadsheet-based evaluation has been developed which allows the user to...

## Effect Of Micromixing On Conversion

Using the macromixing Equation 9-10, an Excel spreadsheet (Example9-1.xls) was developed that gives CA CAO 0.11. In terms of conversion, XA 0.89 or 89 conversion. Thus, the simulation of the actual reactor suggests that it is less efficient than a plug flow reactor. This may be due to several factors such as channeling or bypassing of the fluid in the reactor. If the reactor had been designed using the usual plug flow model, the actual performance in the plant would be far less than expected. For a higher conversion in the reactor, some modifications would be required to remedy the nonideal flow.

## Exercise 2 Object Embedding

(a) In the CHAP15.XLS workbook click once on the chart. Click the Copy button. (c) Double click the chart. If you are new to OLE the result is unexpected. Although you are running a word processor application (Word, WordPerfect, etc.), the part of the screen containing the chart now looks like Excel. That is exactly what it is. The whole of your Excel workbook has been embedded in the document. While the chart is open, the application's menus and tools bars have been replace by those from Excel. Your embedded workbook should consist of a chart sheet and the sheets that were present in the original workbook. Remember to go back to the chart sheet before closing the embedded object since this is what you want displayed. 1. An Excel workbook is linked to a Word document on Monday. Clearly, the workbook and the document display the same data.

## Exercise 4 Going Modular

(b) On Sheet4 of the CHAP1 1 .XLS workbook enter the text and values shown in ALA 10 of Figure 11.5. (f) Select B7 B10 and drag the handle to column F. Change your n values to match those in the spreadsheet. Note that large numbers may be entered with a comma to make them more readable. Do not be surprised if your worksheet takes some time to respond. Microsoft Excel has to do a large number of calculations. Save the workbook.

## 1111 Evolution of Capacity Calculation Methods

The calculations tend to be very simple in nature and limited in scope, since they can become lengthy quite quickly. Spreadsheet programs often helps in this class of calculations, since they handle large sets of calculations quickly. The formula above can be used to incorporate all items passing across each resource within a department to accumulate the aggregate capacity as well as for individual capacity calculations. of which clarifies interrelationships, or to model complex systems beyond the ability of all but the most complex of mathematical computations. The software itself can range from simplistic spreadsheetlike packages to more complex programming languages.

## Conventional Alarm Systems

Intelligent alarm management systems, such as Comdale's SmartWorkX Alarm Manager, fit into an integrated control system. An integrated system can export historical data to business applications such as spreadsheets or relational databases for use in failure analysis and preventive maintenance.

## Wetted Perimeter In Fluid Mechanics 2 Civil Engineering

Work with spreadsheet was done as with the calculation of the hydraulic profile taking place at the downstream portion of channel segment 2. (h) Using spreadsheets, calculate the hydraulic profiles. Apply appropriate vertical and longitudinal geometrical scales, and provide a graphical description of each hydraulic profile. (h) Using spreadsheets, calculate the hydraulic profiles. Apply appropriate vertical and longitudinal geometrical scales, and provide a graphical description of each hydraulic profile.

## Electronic And Pneumatic Controllers

Personal Computer Controller Because of its high performance at low cost and its unexcelled ease of use, application of the personal computer (PC) as a platform for process controllers is growing. When configured to perform scan, control, alarm, and data acquisition (SCADA) functions and combined with a spreadsheet or database management application, the PC controller can be a low-cost, basic alternative to the DCS or PLC.

## Wind Velocity In Environmental Engineering

The area (in terms of x and y coordinates) where H2S could be detected by its odor. A programmable calculator or a computer spreadsheet program may facilitate this calculation, or you can write a computational program. b. Select a minimum wind speed and construct isopleths for the power plant in Problem 18.14. You will need to use a spreadsheet program for this problem.

## Speeding computational procedures

Estimating computations are often lengthy and redundant. Estimating can be performed quickly either by simplifying the computations (often with an associated loss in accuracy) or by computerization in which case accuracy need not be sacrificed. Current and future construction estimating procedures involve the use of spreadsheet-based cost models. There are three basic types of spreadsheets. Spreadsheets are typically large ledger-like sheets of paper upon which are spread the cost factors and costs that go in to the cost estimating procedure in estimating the costs of a construction project. Electronic spreadsheets are a computerized version of the spreadsheet in which cost factors are listed and the estimator fills in the costs for the appropriate items and the computer automatically tallies the results. Automated electronic spreadsheets are an automated version of the electronic spreadsheet in the sense that much of the data, e.g., costs and cost factors, are provided by the...

## Processing the Results of Sorting

The net weights for each waste category in each sample are usually entered into a computer spreadsheet. For each waste category in each group of samples to be analyzed (for example, residential samples and commercial samples), the following should be calculated from the data in the spreadsheet

## Exercise 1 Copy and Paste

In this exercise we will copy data and a chart from an Excel workbook to a document you are writing with a word processor application such as Microsoft1 Word or Corel11 WordPerfect. We need a simple workbook with data and a chart. Let us assume we have run an experiment to find the value of a resistor by measuring the currents passing through the resistor when various voltages are applied. Since V R, the slope of a plot of vs Kwill be 1 7 . (a) Open a new Excel workbook. Enter the data shown in A1 B11 of Figure 15.1. The cell Bll contains the formula 1 OOC) SLOPE(B4 B9, A4 A9) where the factor of 1000 accounts for the fact that the current was measured in milliamps. Microsoft Excel Chart Microsoft Excel Chart

## An Integrating Case Studyammonia Synthesis

Additionally, solutions to problems are presented in the text and the accompanying CD contains computer programs (Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and software) for solving modeling problems using numerical methods. The CD also contains colored snapshots on computational fluid mixing in a reactor. Additionally, the CD contains the appendices and conversion table software.

## Fifth Edition

They use a set of computer programs available from the author on a non-proprietary, non-profit basis. These are written in the BASIC language or utilize a popular spreadsheet. Each type of program demands a minimum of expertise in computer programming, but permits calculations that go well beyond those possible or practical by use of a hand-held calculator. Some of the programs have convenient menus others yield directly a set of numbers still others give graphical displays.

## Concepts

Note Cell reference is the correct term to use when speaking about, for example, A1 or G20. You may find books that use the term cell address. However, this is a term that is never used in Microsoft documentation. It was used by Lotus 1-2-3, a spreadsheet application that preceded Microsoft Excel. Surprisingly, Excel does have a worksheet function called ADDRESS that returns a cell reference Do not use the term name in place of references later in this chapter we will learn that this term has a very specific use in Excel.

## 261 Mass statement

The main structural items in the list above (e.g. wing, fuselage, engine, etc.) can be estimated using statistically determined formulae which can be found in most aircraft design textbooks. (Note if you are working in SI units be careful to convert mass values from historical reports, journals, and current US textbooks to kilograms (1kg 2.205 lb).) Many of these mass items are dependent on MTO, therefore estimations involve an iterative process that starts with the assumed value of MTO, as estimated in the initial sizing stage. Spreadsheet 'solver' methods will be useful when performing this analysis.

## Worksheet

Sooner or later you will wish to print your Microsoft Excel worksheet so we will examine this topic now although we have hardly scratched the surface of Excel. In this chapter we will see how to print all the used area or a selected part of a worksheet. We will also explore various options such as changing the header and footers on a printed page, removing the gridlines, having the column and row headings in the printout and making the selected print area fit one page of paper.

## Report Writing

In this chapter we learn how to place Microsoft Excel workbook data and charts into a word processor document. There are two very different ways to do this (i) using copy and paste, or (ii) with Object Linking and Embedding (OLE). We will examine these methods in detail in the exercises. The algorithm below will help you choose the appropriate method.

## 221 104 158 104

The cooling time in a full-scale batch reactor is 1.27 hr, which is approximately 49 more than the 0.85 hr predicted at the smaller scale. Multiple temperature adjustment steps occur in a chemical reactor production cycle. The sum of these cycle time increases may be significant, and the plant capacity at the larger scale may be adversely affected if the cycle times are not corrected 13 . An Excel spreadsheet (EXAMPLE 13-2.xls) was developed for Example 13-2.

## Summary

Spreadsheet format Unfortunately the number of modules described produces quite a large spreadsheet. If the all the modules are arranged on a single worksheet using the layout suggested the spreadsheet will be very long (> 2000 rows). It soon becomes tedious scrolling up and down past each module. However, modern spreadsheets are three-dimensional in nature. A traditional spreadsheet contains a series of rows and columns. Three-dimensional spreadsheets continue this tradition but contain pages within a single file or workbook. Data may be passed between the different worksheets just as it can be passed between cells on the same page. It is then sensible to place individual modules on separate sheets. This provides a strong structure to a spreadsheet model and reduces the length of each page resulting in less scrolling and better usability. All sheets except the input data sheet may be locked to prevent changes by other users. This is a useful feature for student project work in a...

## Methods

Aircraft design is an iterative process, and therefore very labour intensive. The designer is constantly striving to meet all the design specifications and airworthiness requirements, whilst offering the most cost-effective aircraft to the customer. In the late 1940s, a number of engineers began to address this problem by attempting to automate the design process, using a mixture of mathematical and semi-empirical relationships. However, the calculations still needed to be carried out by hand. With the introduction of computers, designers realised that many of the labour intensive tasks could be achieved using computer programs but early programming languages were very specialised and difficult to use. More recently, the power of desktop computers has enabled calculations to be performed using spreadsheet programs. This section describes the use of spreadsheet programs for student projects in aircraft design. This chapter is followed by several case studies using spreadsheet methods....

## 71 Introduction

With all vehicles the prediction of performance and range is important. Computers allow us to do this reasonably easily. Above all, computer based methods allow us to quickly experiment with aspects of the vehicle, such as motor power, battery type and size, weight and so on, and see how the changes affect the performance and range. In this chapter we will show how the equations we have developed in the preceding chapters can be put together to perform quite accurate and useful simulations. Furthermore, we will show how this can be done without using any special knowledge of programming techniques, as standard mathematics and spreadsheet programs such as MATLAB and EXCEL make an excellent basis for these simulations. We will also see that there are some features of electric vehicles that make the mathematical modelling of performance easier than for other vehicles.

## 4 Mass module

The mass module determines the overall mass breakdown for the aircraft. This module is generally iterative as many specific mass items are dependent on the maximum take-off mass of the aircraft. An initial estimate of the maximum takeoff mass is provided and the user can iterate this value manually to arrive at a final answer. Convergence will normally be completed after approximately ten attempts. Alternatively, the solver facilities available in many modern spreadsheet programs may be used to rapidly determine the maximum take-off mass. For particularly complex spreadsheet models the built-in solvers are sometimes unable to determine a solution. In such cases, macros may be generated to automate the iteration. An example macro for this task using Visual Basic (Microsoft Excel) is shown below

## Phase Diagrams

Ternary-phase equilibrium data can be tabulated as in Table 15-1 and then worked into an electronic spreadsheet as in Table 15-2 to be presented as a right-triangular diagram as shown in Fig. 15-7. The weight-fraction solute is on the horizontal axis and the weight-fraction extraction-solvent is on the vertical axis. The tie-lines connect the points that are in equilibrium. For low-solute concentrations the horizontal scale can be expanded. The water-acetic acid-methylisobutylketone ternary is a Type I system where only one of the binary pairs, water-MIBK, is immiscible. In a Type II system two ofthe binary pairs are immiscible, i.e. the solute is not totally miscible in one of the liquids.

## DHR dT

Despite the large range of computational complexity, simulations of batch distillation show that, in most cases, short-cut and rigorous models agree very well. A distinct advantage of the simplified models is they can be implemented in a spreadsheet. In these models the stage hold-up is considered negligible, except for the feed drum (reboiler) where the following equations hold for the total and volatile component material balances in a column operating at constant distillate composition and variable reflux.

## Bayesian Networks

Some intelligent concepts are being introduced into PC software. In Office 97, Microsoft introduced the Office Assistant. This animated icon watched what you were doing in your word processor or spreadsheet program and offered tips and answered questions to help you with the program.

## Data handling

Whilst many of the aircraft design methods are analytical in nature and thus relatively straightforward to enter into the spreadsheet model, experimental data, such as engine performance data, are sometimes more difficult to enter. Where the data are one-dimensional (i.e. dependent on one variable) curve fit and regression techniques may be used to generate functions for the data that can then be entered directly into the spreadsheet. Care must be taken that such functions match the original data throughout the range of parameters anticipated, whilst being numerically efficient, i.e. high-order polynomials should be avoided. If at certain points the functions are no longer valid, appropriate error handling must be included to limit input parameter variation or else additional functions must be included to control certain parameters for extreme ranges of input values. of data. Alternatively, polynomial interpolation, used frequently for procedural programs, may be applied to...

## Utility Rates

The study team should obtain copies of the current tariff books from the utilities serving the facility. In addition to the specific rate schedule that the facility currently operates on, all potentially applicable rate schedules should be identified and entered into computer spreadsheet format to simulate how utility bills are actually calculated. This will often be necessary to determine the real impact of modifications under consideration. Certain changes could affect the overall cost of fuel or electricity for the entire facility. The study team should also conduct an evaluation of utility rebates that may be available. Advanced knowledge of the mechanics and magnitude of rebate and incentive program offerings may increase the accuracy of the screening process and alter the focus of the study.

## 0000856

Given a suitable algebraic correlation such as equation 2.19, the friction factor chart might be considered obsolete. Both and fRe2 can be represented algebraically as functions of Re allowing both types of calculations to be done. In the case of the inverse problem, that is the calculation of the flow rate for a specified pressure drop, an alternative is to use an iterative calculation, a procedure that is particularly attractive with a pocket calculator or a spreadsheet. Using equation 2.19 for , the procedure is as follows

## 753 Model for change

The recent introduction of inexpensive desktop computers has allowed their extensive use throughout many companies. The standard spreadsheet packages which accompany these machines enables the above data to be laid out in an interactive way, so that 'what if' situations can be explored at the planning stage and the implications of, for example, market trends in the food industry, to be examined over the long term for its effect on the plant layout. The model may include a factor to take into account improvements in technology and working practices in both the office and factory.

## 155 Example

The written transcription was the only part of the design corpus to be used here. It consists of a spreadsheet containing, in each row, a time moment and length indication, the name of the designer speaking, and the content of his her speech (and the possible remarks of the researcher who supervised the experiment). This transcription was recorded according to the model proposed above, i.e. by associating to each statement one of the four generic activities and object(s) from the implicated classes. Conjecture and definition activities are not considered here as the focus is on the aspects related to the problem expression. Table 15.2 illustrates the instantiation for several extracts of the design corpus. The six columns of Table 15.2 contain respectively the moment when the statement was pronounced, its author's initial (I, J or K), the statement itself, the activity identified (E or R), the associated object(s) (N, C, AC, EC) and a personal interpretation.

## 285 Application

The bin method is another analytical tool for screening technology applications. In general, a bin method is a simple computational procedure that is readily adaptable to a spreadsheet-type analysis and can be used to estimate the energy consumption of a given application and climate. Bin methods rely on load and ambient wet and dry bulb temperature distributions. This methodology is used in the case study presented later in this chapter.

## 892 Mission analysis

The aircraft weight defines the CL which in turn defines the CD from which the aircraft drag is calculated. This is multiplied by the engine sfc to obtain the fuel used per hour. This procedure is easily performed using a spreadsheet method. The results are shown in Figure 8.30.

## 810 Cost estimations

Several aircraft design textbooks provide details of cost estimation methods but in this study the method published by the Society of Allied Weight Engineers (SAWE)13 is used. This paper describes fully all the details required to estimate the significant cost values at the preliminary design stage. It also provides a spreadsheet method and example. The method is based on regression of historical data from aircraft of specific types. As new designs will be more technically complex than older aircraft it is necessary to apply factors to account for the increase in costs associated with these new features. Our aircraft has many new technical features including new structural materials and construction processes, a sophisticated flight and weapon control system, vectoring engine nozzles, efficient high altitude and fast flight, and advanced stealth features. Each of the technical factors in the SAWE method will need to be set at high

## Pipe Networks

Work) or an unknown diameter for any one or more of the branches, subject to constraints on the pressure (driving force) and flow rates. Since the solution involves simultaneous coupled nonlinear equations, the process is best done by iteration on a computer and can usually be done by using a spreadsheet. The simplest procedure is usually to assume values for the total head h, at one or more intermediate nodes, because these values are bounded by upstream and downstream values that are usually known, and then iterate on these internal head values.

## A lp s where

Figure 11.4 presents a spreadsheet illustrating the use of all these formulae. For this purpose, the figure has been set out to cover the six single compartments of the ship, although three separate sheets should be used in practice one covering 1 to N compartments, each of which includes the A.T., a second covering 1 to (N - 1) compartments, each of which includes the F.T. and a third for the (N - 2)

## Computer Programs

The Computer Exercises make use of programs in BASIC or the spreadsheet Lotus 1-23. They operate with BASICA, GW-BASIC, or QBasic on a PC with 5 1 4 in. or 3.5 in. diskettes. Instructors may obtain the programs and instruction sheet without charge by writing the author, specifying the type of diskette needed. Any number of copies of the diskette may be made for student use. It is recommended that master backups be made and stored.

## 4 Location Criteria

On-street bikeway, the volume and speed of auto traffic, along with the available width, are factors in determining the best location. Commuting bicyclists generally ride on arterial streets to minimize delay and because they are normally the only streets offering continuity for trips of several miles. The FHWA has developed a spreadsheet to evaluate roadways for bicycle compatibility. The Bicycle Compatibility Index (BCI) measures roadways based on traffic

## 6 Takeoff module

The take-off performance module determines the take-off field performance of the aircraft. As well as computing the standard take-off field length it is often necessary to compute the balanced field length. Here, the distance is computed for both the 'accelerate-go' and the 'accelerate-stop' phases. For the accelerate-stop phase, braking is handled in a similar manner to the landing phase (see Chapter 10). The balanced field length is then determined by altering the decision speed, Vu until both the 'accelerate-go' and the 'accelerate-stop' distances are equal. Again this iteration may be handled within spreadsheets using the built-in solver or specialist macros.

## 66 Initial sizing

In order to undertake the necessary performance calculations it is essential to estimate the aircraft mass (and balance) and the aerodynamic characteristics of the two aircraft. These calculations require an accurate (to scale) drawing of the aircraft (see Figure 6.4 for the conventional and Figure 6.5 for the canard layouts). The dimensions from these drawings are input into the mass and aerodynamic spreadsheets.

## 331 Introduction

The development of tools for collaborative design is nowadays a main challenge. Design activities involve immense communication and interaction between individuals and groups in more or less complex social settings 1 . In order to improve the performance of these tools we must consider many features or issues. Moreover, the issues that we could considerer trivial in a face-to-face situation could turn out to be a major challenge in a distributed situation 2 . Therefore, for better defining these resources we must try to understand the way in which actors organize their activities. Thus, computer tools must be constructed on activity models. We propose to identify these models from the analysis of face-to-face design experiments, observed on real situations or in laboratory 3 . Design activities are led largely by the designers thanks to the utilization of both verbal exchanges and actions made onto the different manipulated objects. These objects are called Intermediary Objects (IO) 4...

## 4221 Zero Dimensional

Numerous modeling approaches to handling the complexity of large-scale combustors are possible and have been used. Before the advent of CFD codes, a common modeling approach was to do an overall heat and material balance on the system. This is often referred to as zero-dimensional modeling because it does not give any spatial resolution. This type of zero-dimensional modeling does not involve any analysis of the fluid dynamics. It can, however, include detailed analysis of the chemical reactions and is often referred to as a stirred reactor or stirred vessel. This type of modeling was made easier with the advent of electronic spreadsheets, but still requires numerous assumptions and simplifications. A more recent type of zero-dimensional model may include very detailed chemistry but still no fluid flow. In that type, the reactor is assumed to be typically either constant pressure or constant volume. The main variable then becomes time, which may be finite or infinite (equilibrium)....

## Data sharing

Web The Internet de facto standard, consisting of a transport protocol called HM, a document format description standard called HTML, and a variety of graphic and video standards, so that users can access linked multimedia documents placed on Web servers from anywhere in the world. Currently, there are many application packages, such as databases and spreadsheets that are readily accessible using the Web interface, without extra work.

## 245 Case Study

The Plug and Play Data Access Architecture allows literally any PDM system to be plugged in as long as some information is available about its source data and appropriate mappings can be developed in XSLT to map this data to PLCS. The same can be said of other database type applications, such as the inservice systems. The system can also read in simple files such as spreadsheets, text files or CSV files and map them to the PLCS model. All these sources can be accessed remotely by the client system, using a web browser.

## Pre Construction

All Construction Team participants should use an agreed upon scheduling software package. This can include off-the-shelf packages, as well as self-developed databases and spreadsheets. The programs should be used to carefully schedule and track the performance of projects. Scheduling should be based on the critical path method so that timely purchase and delivery of material and equipment is ensured and that adequate personnel and resources are available as needed. Scheduling and frequent auditing for compliance should be a major focus of the construction management staff. With such procedures in place, deviations from the schedule will be quickly detected and swift corrective action can be taken as necessary to restore the schedule. Careful attention to scheduling allows for anticipation of delays and minimization of their effects.

## Stiffener

Plated sections of beams, i.e. web and flange sections or the walls of box sections will be defined as standard sections in the finite element program and will be checked against the appropriate code without the need for additional hand-checks. However, for joints in particular, forces will often need to be taken from the finite element analyses and used in hand or spreadsheet calculations to establish if sufficient strength exists.

## Least squares fit

There are more precise ways of determining the line of best fit for linear data. The experimental data consists of pairs of x and y values. We write the equation of the line of best fit as j> mx + b, where p (read as 'y hat') is the predicted value. The least squares criterion requires that we adjust the constants m and b such that the quantity 2(y -ff is as small as possible. The required calculations are tedious. Fortunately, spreadsheets relieve us of the problem. We will explore some of the Microsoft Excel features relating to curve fitting in this chapter and again in Chapters 10 and 14. We will start with exercises using the examples above. (a) On Sheet2 of the CHAP7.XLS workbook, enter the text in the range A1 C 1. After typing 'Time' press Alt + Enter- -1 , then type '(seconds)'. To achieve the superscript after typing '(sec2)', select the '2', use Format Cells and in the dialog box click the box labelled Superscript.

## Manoeuvring

The best way to approach the manoeuvring analysis is by generating data matrices of altitude and aircraft speed. These provide the values for aircraft drag and engine thrust at the aircraft weight and load factor to be considered. Computer programs or spreadsheet applications are the best way to perform the calculations repeatedly for different flight cases.

## 281 Abstract

This chapter provides information and procedures that an energy manager can use to evaluate most ground-source heat pump applications. Ground-source heat pump operation, system types, design variations, energy savings, and other benefits are explained. Guidelines are provided for appropriate application and installation. Two case studies are presented to give the reader a sense of the actual costs and energy savings. A list of manufacturers and references for further reading are included for prospective users who have specific or highly technical questions not fully addressed in this chapter. Sample case spreadsheets are also provided.

## Final design

The time required to climb to the initial cruise altitude of 35000 ft was calculated using a simplified approach. Since ambient conditions, true airspeed and engine thrust vary with altitude, the climb phase was broken down into a series of segments. The conditions at the mid-point of each segment were then used to compute the climb gradient and the time to climb through the segment. The total time is then obtained by summing the time taken for each segment. The results from the spreadsheet are shown in Table 16.14. The spreadsheet model was used to compute requirements for an aircraft with 1250 nm range with 84 and 96 passengers. The results are shown in Table 16.15.

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