If any heat is being rejected by the cell TAS is not zero and the cell efficiency will be less than zero. Other factors that must be considered in real fuel cells are losses associated with attendant accessories, undesirable reactions taking place in the cell, some hindrance of the reaction at the anode or cathode, a concentration gradient in the electrolyte, and Joule heating in the electrolyte. The difference between the maximum useful work and the actual work must appear as rejected heat, in keeping with the first law of thermodynamics. A voltage efficiency is defined by:

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