Fig. I.3 Behavior of water in air: ^ = P1/P3; T2 = dew point.

A convenient way of describing the condition of atmospheric air is to define four temperatures: dry-bulb, wet-bulb, dew-point, and adiabatic saturation temperatures. The dry-bulb temperature is simply that temperature which would be measured by any of several types of ordinary thermometers placed in atmospheric air.

The dew-point temperature (point 2 on Figure I.3) is the saturation temperature of the water vapor at its existing partial pressure. In physical terms it is the mixture temperature where water vapor would begin to condense if cooled at constant pressure. If the relative humidity is 100% the dew-point and dry-bulb temperatures are identical.

In atmospheric air with relative humidity less than 100%, the water vapor exists at a pressure lower than saturation pressure. Therefore, if the air is placed in contact with liquid water, some of the water would be evaporated into the mixture and the vapor pressure would be increased. If this evaporation were done in an insulated container, the air temperature would decrease, since part of the energy to vaporize the water must come from the sensible energy in the air. If the air is brought to the saturated condition, it is at the adiabatic saturation temperature.

A psychrometric chart is a plot of the properties of atmospheric air at a fixed total pressure, usually 14.7 psia. The chart can be used to quickly determine the properties of atmospheric air in terms of two independent properties, for example, dry-bulb temperature and relative humidity. Also, certain types of processes can be described on the chart. Appendix II contains a psychrometric chart for 14.7-psia atmospheric air. Psychrometric charts can also be constructed for pressures other than 14.7 psia.

by temperature differences. Generally, the field is broken down into three basic categories: conduction, convection, and radiation heat transfer.

Conduction is characterized by energy transfer by internal microscopic motion such as lattice vibration and electron movement. Conduction will occur in any region where mass is contained and across which a temperature difference exists.

Convection is characterized by motion of a fluid region. In general, the effect of the convective motion is to augment the conductive effect caused by the existing temperature difference.

Radiation is an electromagnetic wave transport phenomenon and requires no medium for transport. In fact, radiative transport is generally more effective in a vacuum, since there is attenuation in a medium.

I.3.1 Conduction Heat Transfer

The basic tenet of conduction is called Fourier's law,

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