Series versus Parallel Flow

Closed-loop ground-coupled heat exchangers may be designed in series, parallel, or a combination of both. In series systems, the heat transfer fluid can take only one path through the loop, whereas in parallel systems the fluid can take two or more paths through the circuit. The selection will affect performance, pumping requirements, and cost. Small-scale ground-coupling systems can use either series or parallel-flow design, but most large ground-coupling systems use parallel-flow systems. The advantages and disadvantages of series and parallel systems are summarized below. In large systems, pressure drop and pumping costs need to be carefully considered or they will be very high. Variablespeed drives can be used to reduce pumping energy and costs during part-load conditions. Total life-cycle cost and design limitations should be used to design a specific system.

0 0

Post a comment