Mission Statement

The U.S. Green Building Council is the nation's foremost coalition of leaders from across the building industry working to promote buildings that are environmentally responsible, profitable, and healthy places to live and work.

The mission of this unprecedented coalition is to accelerate the adoption of green building practices, technologies, policies, and standards. The USGBC is a committee-based organization endeavoring to move the green building industry forward with market-based solutions. Another vital function of the council is linking industry and government. The council has formed effective relationships and priority programs with key federal agencies, including the U.S. DOE, EPA, and GSA.

The council's membership is open and balanced. It is comprised of leading and visionary representation from all segments of the building industry including product manufacturers, environmental groups, building owners, building professionals, utilities, city government, research institutions, professional societies and universities. This type of representation provides a unique, integrated platform for carrying out important programs and activities.

LEED™ Overview

The LEED Green Building Rating System™ is a priority program of the US Green Building Council. It is a voluntary, consensus-based, market-driven building rating system based on existing proven technology. It evaluates environmental performance from an integrated or "whole building" perspective over a building's life cycle, providing a definitive standard for what constitutes a "green building."

LEED™ is based on accepted energy and environmental principles and strikes a balance between known effective practices and emerging concepts. Unlike other rating systems currently in existence, the development of LEED Green Building Rating System™ was initiated by the US Green Council Membership, representing all segments of the building industry. It also has been open to public scrutiny.

LEED™ is an assessment system that incorporates third party verification and is designed for rating new and existing commercial, institutional, and high-rise residential buildings. It is a feature-oriented system where credits, also called points, are earned for satisfying each criterion. Different levels of green building certification are awarded based on the total credits earned. The system is designed to be comprehensive in scope, yet simple in operation.

29.2.3 General Introduction & Discussion

There are several key points in this section:

• LEED is becoming nationally accepted at local, state and federal levels.

• The engineering community such as ASHRAE, AEE, IESNA has the knowledge and skills that can add significant value to a LEED design team.

• LEED has value to the engineering community, both as owners/operators of facilities or as design team members.

• Green buildings are a process, not a collection of technologies.

• Encourage engineering participation/membership in USGBC and its local chapters.

• Encourage professional accreditation and attendance at LEED workshops.

• Encourage building owners/operators to register and certify projects.

There are many different terms for sustainable buildings, but basically they all convey the same message:

Sustainable Design High Performance Buildings High Efficiency Buildings Integrated Building Design Green Buildings

Sustainable buildings may be our goal, but the most common term used for these high-performance buildings is green buildings. For some, the term green buildings may sound too environmentally focused, but the way it is used here, it represents the all-inclusive idea of sustainable buildings.

Characteristics of Sustainable Green Buildings

• Optimal environmental and economic performance.

• Increased efficiencies saving energy and resources.

• Satisfying, productive, quality indoor spaces.

• Whole building design, construction and operation over the entire life cycle.

• A fully integrated approach—teams, processes, systems.

29.2.4 Green Buildings

Green buildings are designed and constructed in accordance with practices that significantly reduce or eliminate the negative impact of buildings on the environment and its occupants. This includes design, construction, operations, AND, ultimately, demolition. Five fundamental categories constitute the USGBC green building designation. They are:

Sustainable Site Planning Safeguarding Water and Water Efficiency Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Conservation of Materials and Resources Indoor Environmental Quality

All relate back to the previous definitions and discussions of sustainability.

All of these are contained in the LEED standard, Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design. This is the trademark rating system developed by the United States Green Building Council, USGBC.

Besides the LEED rating system to define and describe sustainable buildings, there are others such as:

• The British Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM) was launched in 1990 and is increasing in its use.

• Canada's Building Environmental Performance Assessment Criteria (BEPAC) began in 1994, but was never fully implemented due to its complexity. Canada has now licensed use of LEED from the US-GBC.

• The Hong Kong Building Environmental Assessment Method (HK-BEAM) is currently in pilot form.

• The USGBC LEED family of programs.

• State and regional guides include high performance building guidelines in NY and PA's guidelines for creating high performance buildings, as well as California's programs for school construction.

• Green Globes is a web-based self-assessment program that guides the integration of green principles into a building's design.

LEED strives to encompass a wide band of sustainability that includes:

• Society and Community—recognizes that buildings exist to serve the needs of the community, but that they must also minimize their impacts.

• Environment—again striving to minimize negative impacts on the environment

• Economics—recognizes that the adoption of these sustainability initiatives by business will require economic benefits that can be delivered by green buildings.

• Energy—recognizes that energy plays a key role in building operating costs as well as a sustainable energy future.

29.2.5 Benefits of LEED Buildings The Environment

At the onset, LEED was created to standardize the concept of building green to offer the building industry a universal program that provided concrete guidelines for the design and construction of sustainable buildings for a livable future. As such, it is firmly rooted in the conservation of our world's resources. Each credit point awarded through the rating system reduces our demand and footprint upon the natural environment.

Economics

Conventional wisdom says that the construction of an environmentally friendly, energy efficient building brings with it a substantial price tag and extended timetables. This need not be the case. Breakthroughs in building materials, operating systems and integrated technologies have made building green not only a timely, cost effective alternative, but a preferred method of construction among the nation's leading professionals.

From the USGBC

"Smart business people recognize that high performance green buildings produce more than just a cleaner, healthier environment. They also positively impact the bottom line. Benefits include: better use of building materials, significant operational savings, and increased workplace productivity."

In many instances, green alternatives to conventional building methods are less expensive to purchase and install. An even larger number provide tremendous operational savings. The USGBC and LEED offer the building industry a fiscally sound platform on which to build their case for whole-building design and construction. Green buildings can show a positive return on investment for owners and builders.

Economic benefits also can include:

• Improved occupant performance—employee productivity rises, students' grades improve. California schools have analyses that show children in high performance facilities have improved test scores.

• Absenteeism is reduced.

• Retail stores have observed measurable sales improvements in stores with daylighting.

The savings associated with productivity gains can be the single largest category of savings in an office building. For example, salaries per square foot can be in the range of ten times or more than the cost of energy per square foot in a typical office building. So while the energy engineering community agonizes over extracting each cent in energy costs, there are greater savings potentials by leveraging the increased employee productivity through high performance buildings. As described earlier, these buildings provide a superior indoor environment with regard to lighting, noise control, temperature and humidity control, ventilation, and fresh air.

Building green also enhances asset value. According to organizations such as the International Facilities Management Association (IFMA) and the Building Owners and Managers Association (BOMA), the asset value of a property rises at a rate of ten times the value of the operational savings. For example, if green building efficiency reduces operating costs by $1/sq ft per year, the asset value of that property rises by ten times that amount, or $10. For a 300,000 sq ft office complex, annual savings could be $300,000, and the asset value increase would be approximately $3,000,000. It pays to be efficient.

Societal Implications

In addition to the environmental and economic benefits of building green, there are also significant societal benefits. These include increased productivity, a healthy work environment, comfort, and satisfaction, to name a few. The good news about green buildings can then be leveraged with local and trade media through press releases, ceremonies, or events. By calling attention to the building and its certification status, owners speak volumes about themselves. The USGBC writes:

"Like a strong prospectus, building green sends the right message about a company or organization: it's well run, responsible, and committed to the future"

This, too, has a direct effect on the bottom line.

29.2.6 Benefits to the Architectural and Engineering Community

All too often, market forces drive a building design team to focus on minimum first cost regardless of what the overall life cycle costs of this minimum first cost design may be. The end result is that all elements of society, from owner, to occupants, and to the community end up with a building which is less than what it could have or should have been. It used too many resources in construction, its energy and operating costs are high, and it does not provide the optimum indoor environment for employee productivity.

However, installation of the LEED process of forming an integrated design team on conceptual design day one promotes the formation of a creative solution to the particular buildings needs being planned for. Within this creative roundtable of equals, the team is able to maximize use of the collective wisdom of the members and develop a design concept that can be both green and economic. For example, increasing the use of natural light to displace some artificial light can result in a reduced load on air conditioning systems. These AC systems can then be downsized, resulting in reduced equipment first costs and reduction in electricity use, both through the artificial lighting reduction and reduced cooling loads. Small savings multiply and reverberate throughout the design, ultimately having significant impacts on overall first costs and operating costs.

When building "green," the sum is larger than the individual parts only when all components are integrated into a single unified system. Integration draws upon every aspect of the building to realize efficiencies, cost savings, and continuous returns on investment.

The most significant benefit to the architectural/ engineering (A/E) design community is that LEED promotes and rewards creative solutions. Sustainable and green designs are not yet commodity skills that all firms can lay claim to. For those A/E firms seeking to provide more value to their clients, LEED is a way to achieve this. LEED can become a standard for design excellence, and provides an A/E with a brand differentiator versus the competition. LEED can become an outstanding competitive edge in the marketplace for firms seeking a leadership position of excellence.

LEED Acceptance

There's a groundswell of acceptance taking place.

When LEED was first introduced in 2000, there was reluctance to accept it. It represented a new way of looking at the design, construction, operations, and disposal of facilities. It called for raising the bar, which many have been slow to accept. There were many questions about higher first costs, paybacks, overall benefits, ability of the design community to deliver, doubts about the technologies involved, etc. The perception was that green buildings were too futuristic, unobtainable, and required too many tradeoffs to be able to deliver a practical, efficient facility where people could live, work, and play.

Some elements of these doubts remain, especially as to the financial benefits question. However, as we gain experience with green buildings, we are developing the experience and the data needed to resolve these doubts.

The First Cost "Premium" of LEED

Conventional wisdom says that green buildings cost more. However, as the industry becomes more experienced with the actual delivery of green buildings, green is becoming more cost-neutral. In an article titled "The Costs and Financial Benefits of High Performance Buildings," Greg Kats of Capital E analyzed 40 California LEED buildings for the "cost premium" of LEED. The study consisted of 32 office buildings and eight schools:

• Promotes a whole-building, integrated design process.

What is LEED

• Consists of performance-based and prescriptive-based criteria.

• Focuses on the whole building system instead of the components.

• Life cycle based, not first cost.

• Promotes architectural and engineering innovation, i.e., innovation LEED credits.

• Provides a third-party verification process to ensure quality and compliance.

The growing family of LEED building rating systems includes:

LEED NC for new construction, LEED EB for existing buildings, LEED CI for commercial interiors, LEED CS for commercial core & shell, LEED H for homes, currently in pilot.

Other LEED programs are being developed.

• The eight LEED-certified buildings (the basic level of LEED certification) cost an average of 0.7% more.

• The twenty-one Silver rated buildings cost an average 1.9% more.

• The nine Gold rated buildings cost average of 2.2% more.

• The two Platinum rated buildings cost an average of 6.8% more.

29.2.7 LEED Described

Why was LEED created?

• LEED Developed as a way to define and quantify what constitutes a sustainable green design.

• Defines "green" by providing a standard for measurement.

• Addresses the "greenwashing" issue, such as false or exaggerated claims.

• Facilitates positive results for the environment, occupant health, and financial return.

• Use as a design guideline.

• Recognizes leaders.

• Stimulates green competition.

• Establishes market value with recognizable national "brand."

• Raises consumer awareness.

• Transforms the marketplace.

29.3 INTRODUCING THE LEED NC RATING SYSTEM: A TECHNICAL REVIEW

The LEED format for rating a green building consists of two categories:

• Prerequisites—These are mandatory requirements and all must be satisfied before a building can be certified.

• Credits—Each credit is optional, with each contributing to the overall total of credits. This will determine the level a building will be rated at, i.e. Certified, Silver, Gold or Platinum.

29.3.1 Sustainable Sites—14 Possible Points

Prerequisite:

• Erosion & Sedimentation Control—Control erosion to reduce negative impacts on water and air quality by complying with the EPA storm water management requirements for construction activities.

Credits:

• Site Selection—Avoid development of inappropriate sites and reduce the environmental impact from the location of a building on a site. One point.

• Urban Redevelopment—Channel development to urban areas with existing infrastructures, protecting green fields and preserving habitat and natural resources. One point.

• Brownfield Redevelopment—Rehabilitate damaged sites where development is complicated by real or perceived environmental contamination, thereby reducing pressure on undeveloped land. One point.

• Alternative Transportation—Four points available: one each for public transportation access, bicycle storage, alternative fuel vehicles, and parking capacity.

• Reduced Site Disturbance—Conserve existing natural areas and restore damaged areas to provide habitat and promote biodiversity. Two credits available: one each to protect or restore open space, and/or reduce the development footprint.

• Storm Water Management—Limit disruption of natural water flows by minimizing storm water runoff, increasing on-site infiltration and reducing contaminants. Two credits available: one each for no increase in the rate or quantity of runoff and/ or treatment systems designed to remove total dissolved solids, phosphorous, and comply with EPA guidelines.

• Heat Island Effect—Reduce heat islands, which are thermal gradient differences between developed and underdeveloped areas. There is one point each for roof and non-roof applications, up to two points.

• Light Pollution Reduction—one point. The intent is to eliminate light trespass from the building site, improve night sky access, and reduce development impact on nocturnal environments.

29.3.2 Water Efficiency—5 possible points

No prerequisites in this category.

Credits:

• Water Efficient Landscaping—Limit or eliminate the use of potable water for landscape irrigation. Up to two points available. One each for use of high efficiency irrigation technology, and/or using captured rain or recycled water for irrigation.

• Innovative Wastewater Technologies—one point. Reduce the generation of wastewater and potable water demand, while increasing the local aquifer recharge.

• Water Use Reduction—20% reduction is one point, 30% reduction is two points. Maximize water efficiency within the building to reduce the burden on municipal water supply and wastewater systems.

29.3.3 Energy & Atmosphere—17 possible points

Three prerequisites:

• Fundamental Building Systems Commission ing—Verify and ensure that fundamental building elements and systems such as HVAC are designed, installed, and calibrated to operate as intended.

• Minimum Energy Performance—Establish the minimum level of energy for the base building systems which is compliance with ASHRAE/IES 90.1-1999.

• CFC Reduction in HVAC&R Equipment—This requires zero use of CFC based refrigerants in new buildings such as R11 and R12.

Credits:

• Optimize Energy Efficiency—possible ten points. Achieve increasing levels of energy performance above the prerequisite standard, ASHRAE 90.11999, to reduce environmental impacts associated with excessive energy use. 20% better is two points, 30% is four points, and on up to 60% better is worth ten points.

• Renewable Energy—three points possible, one point each for 5%, 10%, 20% of total energy. Encourage and recognize increasing levels of self-supply through renewable technologies to reduce environmental impacts associated with fossil fuel energy use.

• Additional Commissioning—one point. Verify and ensure that the entire building, including the building envelope, is designed, constructed, and calibrated to operate as intended. This as opposed to the prerequisite which called for only fundamental systems.

• Elimination of HCFC s and HALONS—one point. Reduce ozone depletion and support early compliance with the Montreal Protocol. This applies to refrigerants such as R22 and R123.

• Measurement & Verification—one point. Provide for the ongoing accountability and optimization of building energy and water consumption performance over time.

• Green Power—one point. Encourage the development and use of grid-source energy technologies on a net zero pollution basis by the purchase of green power that meets the Center for Resource Solutions Green-E products.

29.3.4 Materials & Resources—13 possible points

Prerequisite:

• Storage & Collection of Recyclables—Facilitate the reduction of waste generated by building occupants that is hauled to and disposed on in landfills.

Credits:

• Building Reuse—two points possible at 75% and 100% reuse of building shell and non-shell. A third point is available by maintaining 100% of an exist ing building's structure and 50% of the non-shell such as walls, floor coverings, and ceilings. Purpose is to extend the life cycle of existing building stock.

• Construction Waste Management—two points available. This is to divert construction, demolition, and land clearing debris from landfill disposal. Redirect recyclable material back into the manufacturing process. 50% recycled or salvaged materials by weight gets one point, 75% earns one more point.

• Resource Reuse—two possible points at 5% or 10% of using salvaged or refurbished materials. The intent is to extend the life cycle of targeted building materials by reducing environmental impacts related to materials manufacturing and transport.

• Recycled Content—two possible points. One point specifying a minimum of 25% building materials that contain post consumer recycled materials. An additional point is available if an additional 25% is recycled content.

• Local/Regional Materials—two possible points either manufactured or harvested locally. The purpose is to increase the demand for building products that are manufactured locally, less than 500 miles, thereby reducing the environmental impacts resulting from long-distance transportation.

• Rapidly Renewable Materials—one point. Reduce the use and depletion of finite raw and long cycle renewable materials by replacing them with renewables.

• Forest Stewardship Council, FSC, certified wood. One point

Note: regarding "certified products." This does not mean "LEED certified" but certified by other entities such as the Forest Stewardship Council FSC. Beware of manufactures claiming "LEED certified" products. The USGBC and LEED do not certify products. What they do is adopt industry standards as applicable, such as the FSC certified wood.

29.3.5 Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ)— 15 possible points

Two prerequisites:

• Minimum IAQ Performance—Comply with ASHRAE 62-2004 indoor air quality standard to prevent the development of air quality problems.

• Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Control—Prevent exposure of building occupants and systems to ETS.

Credits:

• Carbon Dioxide Monitoring—one point. Provide an

HVAC system which can monitor and ventilate a building based upon CO2 levels.

• Ventilation Effectiveness—one point. Provide for the effective delivery of mixed and outdoor air to support health, safety, and comfort of occupants. Uses ASHRAE 129 methodology.

• Construction IAQ Management Plan—two possible points. Develop an IAQ management plan for during construction and before occupancy, one point. An additional point is available by conducting a two-week building flushout prior to occupancy using 100% outside air.

• Low Emitting Materials—four possible points. One point for low VOC adhesives. One point for low VOC paints. One point for carpet exceeding the Carpet & Rug Institute Green Label IAQ Program. One point for composite wood and agrifiber products containing no additional urea formaldehyde resins.

• Indoor Chemical & Pollutant Source Control—one point. This is to avoid exposing occupants to potentially hazardous chemicals that adversely affect IAQ.

• Controllability of Systems—two possible points, one each for perimeter and non-perimeter. This is to provide a high level of individual occupant control of thermal, ventilation, and lighting systems.

• Thermal Comfort—comply with ASHRAE Standard 55—one point. This relates to providing a thermally comfortable environment that supports healthy and productive performance of occupants.

• Permanent Monitoring System—one point. These are permanent systems to monitor temperature and humidity which also allow occupants to have partial control over these parameters.

• Daylighting & Views—two points available. This is to provide a connection between indoor spaces and outdoor environments through the introduction of sunlight and views into the occupied areas of the building. For one point, achieve a daylight factor of 2% in 75% of all space occupied for critical visual tasks, but not including the likes of laundry rooms, copying rooms etc. For an additional point, achieve the 2% rating in 90% of spaces.

29.3.6 Innovation & Design Process—5 possible points

• Use of LEED-accredited professional—one point

• Innovation in design—four possible points

29.3.7 Discussion

Note: energy and engineering skills are applicable to as many as 58% of total available points on water, energy, and IAQ. Energy related credits are the largest category of available credits.

May '04 Energy User News article by Peter D'Antonio, entitled "The LEEDing Way."

The article analyzes the activity in energy & atmosphere, E&A, and indoor environmental quality, IEQ, for the first 53 LEED-certified buildings:

• Regarding E&A, average points earned is only 5.3 out of the possible 17!

• This is the lowest % achieved in any of the five categories! So although E & A is the largest plum, few appear to be taking advantage of it.

• Renewable energy points are earned in fewer than 10% of the certified buildings.

• Regarding IEQ points, ventilation effectiveness and controllability points are achieved in less than one third of buildings.

This EUN article provides support for the proposition that engineers, the AEE, ASHRAE, the IESNA, and others are not maximizing the potential contributions to LEED buildings. Hence, there is a significant opportunity to take on a larger role in the design, construction, and operations of green buildings.

Other factors for the design team to consider are the forces that drive the LEED points on a project. Many times, for the design team of an LEED project, it boils down to, "How many points can we get?" This becomes especially the case for the mechanical, electrical, and plumbing (MEP) team members. They control or influence approximately 75% the total LEED credits on a job. Commonly called "pointchasing," it is an effort by the design team to achieve the maximum available points at the minimum cost and effort. And although it is a rather ugly approach to green building design, it has become a matter of fact that teams will focus on points. It is even possible that the acquisition of points is one of the elements in the design contract. Possibly a bonus is linked to points achieved?

But this can and should be "managed" by the owner. It gets back to the integrated design process and the setting of goals during the design charette. Does the owner want very high energy efficiency, or does he want to make an environmental statement with a green roof?

29.4 LEED FOR EXISTING BUILDINGS RATING SYSTEM (LEED-EB) ADOPTED IN 2004

LEED for existing buildings

Addresses:

• Operation and upgrades of existing buildings.

• Initial certification and ongoing re-certification.

• Achievements:

—More than 95 registered buildings.

—4 certified buildings.

—Federal, state, and local government; schools, colleges and universities, commercial buildings. LEED-EB approval completed and released for use, Oct. 2004.

Why LEED-EB Is So Important

Drawing on similarities to LEED NC, LEED EB has a larger potential impact and resultant benefits to society simply because there are many times more existing buildings than new construction. LEED EB focuses on where the greatest impact potential is.

29.4.1 LEED for Existing Buildings Rating System LEED-EB Rating System Goals

• Help building owners upgrade and operate their buildings in a sustainable way over the long term.

Avoid the "saw tooth" approach (upgrade, decline, upgrade, decline).

• Support high productivity by building occupants.

• Operations

—Helps building owners upgrade and operate their buildings in a sustainable way over the long term.

—Reduces building operating costs.

—Solves building operating problems.

—Improves indoor environment.

—Supports higher productivity of building occupants.

• Communications

—Helps building managers, operators, and service providers communicate the importance of effective ongoing building operation and maintenance to decision makers in their organization.

—Helps building managers and operators make sustainability part of the culture of their organization.

—Helps CEOs and CFOs make sustainability part of the culture of their organization.

—Helps communicate organization's sustainability commitments and achievements to its customers and the community.

Prerequisites and Credits

Same categories as for other LEED Rating Systems:

• Sustainable Sites

• Water Efficiency

• Energy and Atmosphere

• Materials and Resources

• Indoor Environmental Quality

• Innovation and Accredited Professional

LEED-EB Rating System

Four Levels of Certification:

LEED-EB Certified Silver Level Gold Level Platinum Level

32-39 points 40-47 points 48-63 points 64-85 points

29.4.2 LEED for EB Technical Review

Similar to LEED NC, all prerequisites must be satisfied, and the credits are optional depending upon the final points and certification level desired.

29.4.2.1 Sustainable Sites—14 possible points

Two prerequisites:

• Erosion and Sedimentation Control—Control erosion to reduce negative impacts on water and air quality.

Credits:

• Plan for Green Site & Bldg Exterior Management— up to two points. Encourage grounds/site/building exterior management practices that have the lowest environmental impact possible and preserve ecological integrity, enhance diversity, and protect wildlife while supporting building performance.

• Hi Development Density Building & Area—one point. Channel development to urban areas with existing infrastructure, protect greenfields, and preserve habitat and natural resources.

• Environmentally Preferable Alt Transportation—up to four points available. One point each for: public transportation access, bicycle storage and changing rooms, alternative fueled vehicles, car pooling, and telecommuting.

• Reduced Site Disturbance—up to two points. One point for protecting or restoring 50% of site area. An additional point to protect or restore open space at 75% of the site area.

• Storm water Management—up to two points. One point for measures that mitigate at least 25% of the annual storm water falling on the site. An additional point for mitigation of at least 50% of storm water.

• Reduce Heat Islands Effect (roof and non-roof)—up to two points. One point for reduction of heat islands. An additional point is available for an ENER-GYSTAR-compliant roof.

• Light Pollution Reduction—one point. Eliminate light trespass from the building and site, improve the night sky, and reduce development impact on nocturnal environments.

29.4.2.2 Water Use and Water Efficiency — 5 possible points

Two Prerequisites:

• Minimum Water Efficiency—maximize fixture water efficiency within buildings to reduce the burden on potable water supply and wastewater systems.

• Discharge Water Compliance—protect natural habitat, waterways, and water supply from pollutants carried by building discharge water.

Credits:

• Water Efficient Landscaping—up to two points. Requires the use of water efficient irrigation technologies or captured rain and recycled water to reduce potable water consumption for irrigation. The first point is based on a 50% reduction, and an additional point is available for 95% reduction in potable water use.

• Innovative Wastewater Technology—one point. Reduce the generation of wastewater and potable water demand, while increasing the local aquifer recharge.

• Water Use Reduction—up to two points. Maximize fixture potable water efficiency to reduce burdens on potable and wastewater municipal systems. The first point is for a 10% reduction and an additional point is available for a 20% reduction.

29.4.2.3 Energy and Atmosphere—23 possible points

Three Prerequisites

• Existing Building Commissioning—Verify that fundamental buildings systems are performing as intended.

• Minimum Energy Performance—Satisfy the minimum level of energy efficiency using the ENER-GYSTAR portfolio manager. Needs a rating of 60 or more.

• Ozone Protection—Reduce ozone depletion potentials by not using CFC refrigerants such as R11 and R12.

Credits:

• Optimize Energy Performance—up to ten points available. Achieve increasing levels of energy efficiency above the ENERGYSTAR prerequisite score of 60. Thus a score 63 earns one point, 79 earns five points, up to a maximum of ten points for a 99 rating.

• On-site & Off-site Renewable Energy—up to four points. The first point is for 5% on-site renewable OR 25% off-site renewables up to a maximum of four points for 30% on-site renewable energy OR 100% off-site renewable energy.

• Building Operations & Maintenance—up to three points. One point each for maintenance staff education, building systems maintenance, building systems monitoring.

• Additional Ozone Protection—one point. Reduce ozone depletion potential in compliance with Montreal Protocol. Thus HCFC refrigerants such as R22 and R123 are not used.

• Performance Measurement—up to four points. Have in place a continuous metering system for a number of facilities functions as follows: lighting systems, electric and gas metering, cooling load, chilled water system efficiency, irrigation water metering, boiler efficiencies, HVAC systems such as economizers, variable speed pumps and fans, air distribution, and emissions monitoring. Note these all can be incorporated into the building automation system (BAS).

• Documenting Sustainable Building Cost Impacts— one point. Document overall building operating costs for previous five years and track changes in the overall operating costs.

29.4.2.4 Materials and Resources -16 possible points

Two prerequisites:

• Source Reduction and Waste Management—establish minimum source reduction and recycling program elements.

Toxic Material Source Reduction—reduced mercury in lamps.

Credits:

• Construction, Demolition and Renovation Waste Management—up to two points. First point for diverting 50% or more of construction, demolition and land clearing waste from landfills. An additional point if 75% or more is diverted.

• Optimize Use of Alternative Materials—up to five points available. Maintain a sustainable purchasing program covering at least office paper, office equipment, furniture, furnishings, and building materials. One point is awarded for each 10% of total purchases that achieve criteria such as 70% salvaged materials, 10% post consumer recycled, 50% rapidly renewables, FSC-certified wood, and materials manufactured within 500 miles of the site.

• Optimize Use of IAQ Compliant Products—up to two points. These relate to the purchase of low emitting materials such as for carpets, sealants, paints and coatings, composite materials and agrifiber products with no added urea formaldehyde.

• Sustainable Cleaning Products and Materials—up to three points. Points accumulate based upon quantities of products that meet the Green Seal GS-37 or comply with the California Code of Regulations for VOCs. Disposable janitorial paper products and trash bags meet the requirements of the EPA comprehensive procurement guidelines.

• Occupant Recycling—up to three points. Set up divert/recycle programs for occupants. 30% is one point, 20% another, and the third point if 30% of total waste stream is diverted or recycled.

• Additional Toxic Material Source Reduction—one point. Establish a program to reduce the potential amounts of mercury brought into the building through lamps.

29.4.2.5 Indoor Environmental Quality— 22 points available

Four prerequisites:

• Outside Air Introduction and Exhaust Systems— Satisfy ASHRAE 62-2004 for IAQ.

• Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Control—Prevent or minimize occupant exposure to ETS.

• Asbestos Removal or Encapsulation—Establish an asbestos remediation and control management plan.

• PCB Removal—Establish a PCB management plan including a facility survey for PCBs.

Credits:

• Outside Air Delivery Monitoring—one point. Provide permanent monitoring systems on ventilation system performance measuring outdoor air and CO2.

• Increased Ventilation—one point. Increase ventilation rates to exceed ASHRAE 62-2004 by 30%.

• Construction IAQ Management Plan—one point. Prevent any IAQ problems from arising due to construction/renovation work. Isolate occupied areas from dust, noise and other irritants.

• Documenting Productivity Impacts—up to two points. Document the history of absenteeism, productivity, and health care costs and submit to the USGBC.

• Indoor Chemical & Pollution Source Control—up to two points. Reduce the exposure of occupants to dusts and particulates by using filters of effective ness of MERV 13 or greater. An additional point is earned by reducing occupants' exposures to contaminants that may arise from operations such as copying, faxing, etc.

• Controllability of Systems—up to two points. Points available for occupant control of lighting systems and another for HVAC and temperature control.

• Thermal Comfort—ASHRAE Standard 55- up to two points. First point for compliance with the standard and an additional point is available for a permanent monitoring system to ensure compliance.

• Daylighting and Views—up to four points. Provide a connection between indoor spaces and the outdoor environment through the introduction of sunlight and views. Points available for 50% and 75% of spaces that have a 2% daylight factor. And two more points available for 45% of spaces (1 point) and 90% of spaces (1 point) that have direct line of sight vision to the outdoors.

• Contemporary IAQ Practice—one point. Enhance IAQ performance by optimizing practices and developing procedures to prevent the development of IAQ problems.

• Green Cleaning—up to six points. Points available for cleaning entryway systems, isolation of janitorial closets, low environmental impact cleaning policy, low environmental impact pest management policy, and low environmental impact cleaning equipment policy.

29.4.2.6 Innovation and Accredited Professional

5 possible points

• LEED EB Innovation in Operation, Upgrades and Maintenance—up to four points.

• LEED-accredited Professional—one point.

29.5 SUMMARY DISCUSSION OF TWO NEW LEED PROGRAMS:

LEED-CI for Commercial Interiors and LEED-CS for Core and Shell

LEED-CI addresses the specifics of tenant spaces primarily in office, retail and industrial buildings. It was formally adopted in the fall of 2004. A companion rating is LEED for core & shell which is currently under development and in its pilot phase. Adoption is expected the fall of 2005. Together, LEED-CI and LEED-CS will establish green building criteria for commercial office real estate for use by both developers and tenants.

LEED-CI serves building owners and occupants as well as the interior designers and architects who de-

sign building interiors and the teams of professionals who install them. It addresses performance areas including water efficiency, energy efficiency, HVAC systems & equipment, resource utilization, furnishings, and indoor environmental quality.

29.5.1 LEED for Commercial Interiors (CI)

• Addresses the design and construction of interiors in existing buildings and tenant fit-outs in new core and shell buildings.

• Achievements: More that 45 projects in pilot.

29.5.1.1 LEED-CI Point Distribution

The same five basic categories as the other LEED rating systems are used.

Possible Points

Sustainable Sites 7

Water Efficiency 2

Energy & Atmosphere 12

Materials & Resources 14

Indoor Environmental Quality 17

Innovation & Design Process 4

LEED Accredited Professional 1

Total Points Available_57

4 Levels of Certification

Certified Silver Gold 2-41 Platinum

0 0

Post a comment