1. Survey surface temperatures using infrared thermometry or thermography on insulated equipment and piping to locate areas of insulation deterioration. Maintain insulation on a regular basis.

2. Evaluate insulation of all uninsulated lines and fittings previously thought to be uneconomic. Recent rises in energy costs have made insulation of valves, flanges, and small lines desirable in many cases where this was previously unattractive.

3. Survey the economics of retrofitting additional insulation on presently insulated lines, and upgrade insulation if economically feasible.

sea level is usually around 14.7 psi, we can obtain the absolute pressure by simply adding 14.7 to the gauge pressure reading. In tables of steam properties, it is more common to see pressures listed in psia, and hence it is necessary to make the appropriate correction to the pressure indicated on a gauge.

Saturated and Superheated Steam. If we put cold water into a boiler and heat it, its temperature will begin to rise until it reaches the boiling point. If we continue to heat the water, rather than continuing to rise in temperature, it begins to boil and produce steam. As long as the pressure remains constant, the temperature will remain at the saturation temperature for the given pressure, and the more heat we add, the more liquid will be converted to steam. We call this boiling liquid a "saturated liquid" and refer to the steam so generated as "saturated vapor." We can continue to add more and more heat, and we will simply generate more saturated vapor (or simply "saturated steam") until the water is completely boiled off. At this point, if we continue to add heat, the steam temperature will begin to rise once more. We call this "superheated steam." This chapter will concentrate on the behavior of saturated steam, because this is the steam condition most commonly encountered in industrial process heating applications. Superheated steam is common in power generation and is often produced in industrial systems when cogenera-tion of power and process heat is used.

Sensible and Latent Heat. Heat input that is directly registered as a change in temperature of a substance is called "sensible heat," for the simple reason that we can, in fact, "sense" it with our sense of touch or with a thermometer. For example, the heating of the water mentioned above before it reaches the boiling point would be sensible heating. When the heat goes into the conversion of a liquid to a vapor in boiling, or vice versa in the process of condensation, it is termed "latent heat." Thus when a pound of steam condenses on a heater surface to produce a pound of saturated liquid at the same temperature, we say that it has released its latent heat. If the condensate cools further, it is releasing sensible heat.

Enthalpy. The total energy content of a flowing medium, usually expressed in Btu/lb, is termed its "enthalpy." The enthalpy of steam at any given condition takes into account both latent and sensible heat, and also the "mechanical" energy content reflected in its pressure. Hence steam at 500 psia and 600°F will have a higher enthalpy than steam at the same temperature but at 300 psia. Also, saturated steam at any temperature and pressure has a higher enthalpy than condensate at the same conditions due to the latent heat content of the steam. Enthalpy, as listed in tables of steam properties, does not include the kinetic energy of motion, but this component is insignificant in most energy conservation applications.

Specific Volume. The specific volume of a substance is the amount of space (e.g., cubic feet) occupied by 1 pound of substance. This term will become important in some of our later discussions, because steam normally occupies a much greater volume for a given mass than water (i.e., it has a much greater specific volume), and this must be taken into account when considering the design of condensate return systems.

Condensate. Condensate is the liquid produced when steam condenses on a heater surface. As shown later, this condensate still contains a significant fraction of its energy, and can be returned to the boiler to conserve fuel.

Flash Steam. When hot condensate at its saturation temperature corresponding to the elevated pressure in a heating vessel rapidly drops in pressure, as, for example, when passing through a steam trap or a valve, it suddenly finds itself at a temperature above the saturation temperature for the new pressure. Steam is thus generated which absorbs sufficient energy to drop the temperature of the condensate to the appropriate saturation level. This is called "flash steam," and the pressure-reduction process is called "flashing." In many condensate return systems, flash steam is simply released to the atmosphere, but it may, in fact, have practical applications in energy conservation.

Boiler Efficiency. The boiler efficiency is the percentage of the energy released in the burning of fuel in a boiler which actually goes into the production of steam. The remaining percentage is lost through radiation from the boiler surfaces, blowdown of the boiler water to maintain satisfactory impurity levels, and loss of the hot flue gas up the stack. Although this chapter does go into detail on the subject of boiler efficiency, which is discussed in Chapter 5, it is important to recognize that this parameter relates the energy savings obtainable by conserving steam to the fuel savings obtainable at the boiler, a relation of obvious economic importance. Thus if we save 100 Btu of steam energy and have a boiler with an efficiency of 80%, the actual fuel energy saved would be 100/0.80, or 125 Btu. Because boilers always have an efficiency of less than 100% (and more com-

Table 6.2 Thermodynamic Properties of Saturated Steam








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