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Fig. III.12 Summary of the relationship among R, Xc, and Z shown in the complex plane.

In circuits containing both resistive and reactive elements, the resistance is plotted on the positive real axis while the reactances are plotted on the imaginary axis. The fact that inductive and capacitive reactance causes opposite phase displacements (has opposite effects in ac circuits) is further emphasized by plotting their reactance effects in opposite directions on the imaginary axis of the complex plane. The case is building for why capacitors might be used in an ac circuit with inductive loading to improve the circuit's power factor.

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