And Verification Methods

Nationally recognized protocols for measurement and verification have evolved since the publication of the 1996 NEMVP as shown in Table 27.4. This evolution reflects the consensus process that the Department of Energy has chosen as a basis for the protocols. This process was chosen to produce methods that all parties agree can be used by the industry to determine savings from performance contracts, varying in accuracy and cost from partial stipulation to complete measurement. In 1996 three M&V methods were included in the NEMVP: Option A: measured capacity with stipulated consumption; Option B: end-use retrofits, which utilized measured capacity and measured consumption; and Option C: whole-facility or main meter measurements, which utilize before after regression models.

In 1997, Options A, B and C were modified and relabeled, and Option D: calibrated simulation was added. Also included in the 1997 IPMVP was a chapter on measuring the performance of new construction, which primarily utilized calibrated simulation, and a discussion of the measurement of savings due to water conservation efforts. In 2001 the IPMVP was published in two volumes: Volume I, which covers Options A, B, and C, which were redefined and relabeled from the 1997 IPMVP, and Volume II, which covers indoor environmental quality (IEQ), and includes five M&V approaches for IEQ, including: no IEQ M&V, M&V based on modeling, short-term measurements, long-term measurements, and a method based on occupant perceptions of IEQ. In 2003 the IPMVP released Volume III, which contains four M&V methods: Option A: partially measured Energy Conservation Measure (ECM) isolation, Option B: ECM isolation, Option C: whole-building comparisons, and Option D: whole-building calibrated simulation.

In 2002 ASHRAE released Guideline 14-2002: Measurement of Energy and Demand Savings, which is intended to serve as the technical document for the IPMVP. As the name implies, Guideline 14 contains approaches for measuring energy and demand savings from energy conservation retrofits to buildings. This includes three methods: a retrofit isolation approach, which parallels Option B of the IPMVP, a whole-building approach, which parallels Option C of the IPMVP, and a whole-building calibrated simulation approach, which parallels Option D of the 1997 and 2001 IPMVP. ASHRAE's Guideline 14 does not explicitly contain an approach that parallels Option A in the IPMVP, although several of the retrofit isolation approaches use partial measurement procedures, as will be discussed in a following section.

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