## 632 Estimating Surface and Leakage Losses

In addition to the steam required to actually carry out a process, heat is lost through the surfaces of pipes, storage tanks, and jacketed heater surfaces, and steam is lost through malfunctioning steam traps, and leaks in flanges, valves, and other fittings. Estimation of these losses is important, because fixing them can often be the most cost-effective energy conservation measure available.

Figure 6.2 illustrates the annual heat loss, based on 24-hr/day, 365-day/yr operation, for bare steam lines at

Fig. 6.3 Heat losses from surfaces at elevated temperatures.

various pressures. The figure shows, for example, that a 100-ft run of 6-in. line operating at 100 psig will lose about 1400 million Btu/yr. The economic return on an insulation retrofit can easily be determined with price data obtained from an insulation contractor.

Figure 6.3 can be used to estimate heat losses from flat surfaces at elevated temperatures, or from already insulated piping runs for which the outside jacket surface temperature is known. The figure shows the heat flow per hour per square foot of exposed surface area as a function of the difference in temperature between the surface and the surrounding air. It will be noted that the nature of the surface significantly affects the magnitude of the heat loss. This is because thermal radiation, which is strongly dependent on the character of the radiating surface, plays an important role in heat loss at elevated temperature, as does convective heat loss to the air.

Another important source of energy loss in steam systems is leakage from components such as loose flanges or malfunctioning steam traps. Figure 6.4 permits estimation of this loss of steam at various pressures leaking through holes. The heat losses are represented in million Btu/yr, based on full-time operation. Using the figure, we can see that a stuck-open steam trap with a 1/8-in. orifice would waste about 600 million Btu/yr of steam energy when leaking from a 100-psig line. This figure can also be used to estimate magnitudes of leakage from other sources of more complicated geometry. It is necessary to first determine an approximate area of leakage (in square inches) and then calculate the equivalent hole diameter represented by that area. The following example illustrates this calculation.

Fig. 6.3 Heat losses from surfaces at elevated temperatures.

Example: A flange on a 200-psig steam line has a leaking gasket. The maintenance crew, looking at the gasket, estimates that it is about 0.020 in. thick and that it is leaking from about 1/8-in. of the periphery of the flange. Estimate the annual heat loss in the steam if the line is operational 8000 hr/yr.

The area of the leak is a rectangle 0.020 in. wide and 1/8-in. in length:

An equivalent circle will have an area of nd2/4, so if nd2/4 = 0.0025, then D = 0.056 in. From Figure 6.4, this leak, if occurring year-round (8760 hr), would waste about 200 million Btu/yr of steam energy. For actual operation heat lost = ■

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