## 622 Properties of Saturated Steam

In calculating the energy savings obtainable through various measures, it is important to understand the quantitative thermal properties of steam and condensate. Table 6.2 shows a typical compilation of the properties of saturated steam.

Columns 1 and 2 list various pressures, either in gauge (psig) or absolute (psia). Note that these two pressures always differ by about 15 psi (14.7 to be more precise). Remember that the former represents the pressure indicated on a normal pressure gauge, while the latter represents the true pressure inside the line. Column 3 shows the saturation temperature corresponding to each of these pressures. Note, for example, that at an absolute pressure of 14.696 (the normal pressure of the atmosphere at sea level) the saturation temperature is 212°F, the figure we are all familiar with. Suppose that we have a pressure of 150 psi indicated on the pressure gauge on a steam line. This is an arbitrary reference point, and therefore the heat indicated at any other temperature tells us the amount of heat added to raise the water from an initial value of 32°F to that temperature. For example, referring back to our 150 psig steam, the water contains about 338.5 Btu/lb: starting from 32°F, 10 lb of water would contain 10 times this number, or about 3385 Btu. We can also subtract one number from another in this column to find the amount of heat necessary to raise the water from one temperature to another. If the water started at 101.74°F, it would contain a heat of 69.7 Btu/lb, and to raise it from this temperature to 366°F would require 338.5—69.7, or about 268.8 Btu for each pound of water. Column (5) shows the latent heat content of a pound of steam for each pressure. For our 150-psig example, we can see that it takes about 857 Btu to convert each pound of saturated water into saturated steam. Note that this is a much larger quantity than the heat content of the water alone, confirming the earlier observation that steam is a very effective carrier of heat; each pound can give up, in this case, 857 Btu when condensed on a surface back to saturated liquid. Column (6), the enthalpy of the saturated steam, represents simply the sum of columns (4) and (5), since each pound of steam contains both the latent heat required to vaporize the water and the sensible heat required to raise the water to the boiling point in the first place.

Column (7) shows the specific volume of the saturated steam at each pressure. Note that as the pressure increases, the steam is compressed; that is, it occupies less space per pound. 150-psig steam occupies only 2.75

ft3/lb; if released to atmospheric pressure (0 psig) it would expand to nearly 10 times this volume. By comparison, saturated liquid at atmospheric pressure has a specific volume of only 0.017 ft3/lb (not shown in the table), and it changes only a few percent over the entire pressure range of interest here. Thus 1 lb of saturated liquid condensate at 212°F will expand more than 1600 times in volume in converting to a vapor. This illustrates that piping systems for the return of condensate from steam-heated equipment must be sized primarily to accommodate the large volume of flashed vapor, and that the volume occupied by the condensate itself is relatively small.

The steam tables can be a valuable tool in estimating energy savings, as illustrated in the following example.

Example: A 100-ft run of 6-in. steam piping carries saturated steam at 95 psig. Tables obtained from an insulation manufacturer indicate that the heat loss from this piping run is presently 110,000 Btu/hr. With proper insulation, the manufacturer's tables indicate that this loss could be reduced to 500 Btu/hr. How many pounds per hour of steam savings does this installation represent, and if the boiler is 80% efficient, what would be the resulting fuel savings?

From the insulation manufacturer's data, we can find the reduction in heat loss:

heat-loss reduction = 110,000 - 500 = 109,500 Btu/hr

From Table 6.2 at 95 psig (halfway between 90 and 100), the total heat of the steam is about 1188.4 Btu/lb. The steam savings, is therefore

109,500 Btu/hr steam savings = -

1188.4 Btu/lb

Assume that condensate is returned to the boiler at around 212°F; thus the condensate has a heat content of about 180 Btu/lb. The heat required to generate 95 psig steam from this condensate is 1188.4 - 180.0 or 1008.4 Btu/lb. If the boiler is 80% efficient, then

1008.4 Btu/lb x 92 lb/hr fuel savings = ———————————

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