The auditor must be sure to account for all the taxes, the fuel adjustment costs, the fixed charges, and any other costs so that the true cost of the controllable energy cost components can be determined. In the electric rate structure described above, the quoted costs for a kW of demand and a kWh of energy are not complete until all these additional costs are added. Although the rate structure says that there is a basic charge of $6.50 per kW per month, the actual cost including all taxes is $7.02 per kW per month. The average cost per kWh is most easily obtained by taking the data for the twelve month period and calculating the cost over this period of time. Using the numbers from the table, one can see that this company has an average energy cost of $0.075 per kWh.

These data are used initially to analyze potential ECOs and will ultimately influence which ECOs are recommended. For example, an ECO that reduces peak demand during a month would save $7.02 per kW per month. Therefore, the auditor should consider ECOs that would involve using certain equipment during the night shift when the peak load is significantly less than the first shift peak load. ECOs that save both energy and demand on the first shift would save costs at a rate of $0.075 per kWh. Finally, ECOs that save electrical energy during the off-peak shift should be examined too, but they may not be as advantageous; they would only save at the rate of $0.043 per kWh because they are already used off-peak and there would not be any additional demand cost savings.

Physical and Operational Data for the Facility

The auditor must gather information on factors likely to affect energy use in the facility. Geographic location, weather data, facility layout and construction, operating hours, and equipment can all influence energy use.

• Geographic Location/Weather Data: The geographic location of the facility should be noted, together with the weather data for that location. Contact the local weather station, the local utility or the state energy office to obtain the average degree days for heating and cooling for that location for the past twelve months. This degree-day data will be very useful in analyzing the need for energy for heating or cooling the facility. Bin weather data would also be useful if a thermal envelope simulation of the facility were going to be performed as part of the audit.

• Facility Layout: Next the facility layout or plan should be obtained, and reviewed to determine the facility size, floor plan, and construction features such as wall and roof material and insulation levels, as well as door and window sizes and construction. A set of building plans could supply this information in sufficient detail. It is important to make sure the plans reflect the "as-built" features of the facility, since many original building plans do not get updated after building alterations.

• Operating Hours: Operating hours for the facility should also be obtained. Is there only a single shift? Are there two shifts? Three? Knowing the operating hours in advance allows some determination as to whether some loads could be shifted to off-peak times. Adding a second shift can often be cost effective from an energy cost view, since the demand charge can then be spread over a greater amount of kWh.

• Equipment List: Finally, the auditor should get an equipment list for the facility and review it before conducting the audit. All large pieces of energy-consuming equipment such as heaters, air conditioners, water heaters, and specific process-related equipment should be identified. This list, together with data on operational uses of the equipment allows a good understanding of the major energy-consuming tasks or equipment at the facility. As a general rule, the largest energy and cost activities should be examined first to see what savings could be achieved. The greatest effort should be devoted to the ECOs which show the greatest savings, and the least effort to those with the smallest savings potential.

The equipment found at an audit location will depend greatly on the type of facility involved. Residential audits for single-family dwellings generally involve smaller-sized lighting, heating, air conditioning and refrigeration systems. Commercial operations such as grocery stores, office buildings and shopping centers usually have equipment similar to residences, but much larger in size and in energy use. However, large residential structures such as apartment buildings have heating, air conditioning and lighting that is very similar to many commercial facilities. Business operations is the area where commercial audits begin to involve equipment substantially different from that found in residences.

Industrial auditors encounter the most complex equipment. Commercial-scale lighting, heating, air conditioning and refrigeration, as well as office business equipment, is generally used at most industrial facilities. The major difference is in the highly specialized equip ment used for the industrial production processes. This can include equipment for chemical mixing and blending, metal plating and treatment, welding, plastic injection molding, paper making and printing, metal refining, electronic assembly, and making glass, for example.

3.3.3 Safety Considerations

Safety is a critical part of any energy audit. The audit person or team should be thoroughly briefed on safety equipment and procedures, and should never place themselves in a position where they could injure themselves or other people at the facility. Adequate safety equipment should be worn at all appropriate times. Auditors should be extremely careful making any measurements on electrical systems, or on high temperature devices such as boilers, heaters, cookers, etc. Electrical gloves or asbestos gloves should be worn as appropriate.

The auditor should be careful when examining any operating piece of equipment, especially those with open drive shafts, belts or gears, or any form of rotating machinery. The equipment operator or supervisor should be notified that the auditor is going to look at that piece of equipment and might need to get information from some part of the device. If necessary, the auditor may need to come back when the machine or device is idle in order to safely get the data. The auditor should never approach a piece of equipment and inspect it without the operator or supervisor being notified first.

Safety Checklist

1. Electrical:

a. Avoid working on live circuits, if possible.

b. Securely lock off circuits and switches before working on a piece of equipment.

c. Always keep one hand in your pocket while making measurements on live circuits to help prevent cardiac arrest.

2. Respiratory:

a. When necessary, wear a full face respirator mask with adequate filtration particle size.

b. Use activated carbon cartridges in the mask when working around low concentrations of noxious gases. Change the cartridges on a regular basis.

c. Use a self-contained breathing apparatus for work in toxic environments.

3. Hearing:

a. Use foam insert plugs while working around loud machinery to reduce sound levels up to 30 decibels.

3.3.4 Conducting the Audit Visit

Once the information on energy bills, facility equipment and facility operation has been obtained, the audit equipment can be gathered up, and the actual visit to the facility can be made.

Introductory Meeting

The audit person—or team—should meet with the facility manager and the maintenance supervisor and briefly discuss the purpose of the audit and indicate the kind of information that is to be obtained during the visit to the facility. If possible, a facility employee who is in a position to authorize expenditures or make operating policy decisions should also be at this initial meeting.

Audit Interviews

Getting the correct information on facility equipment and operation is important if the audit is going to be most successful in identifying ways to save money on energy bills. The company philosophy towards investments, the impetus behind requesting the audit, and the expectations from the audit can be determined by interviewing the general manager, chief operating officer, or other executives. The facility manager or plant manager is one person that should have access to much of the operational data on the facility, and a file of data on facility equipment. The finance officer can provide any necessary financial records (e.g., utility bills for electric, gas, oil, other fuels, water and wastewater, expenditures for maintenance and repair, etc.).

The auditor must also interview the floor supervisors and equipment operators to understand the building and process problems. Line or area supervisors usually have the best information on times their equipment is used. The maintenance supervisor is often the primary person to talk to about types of lighting and lamps, sizes of motors, sizes of air conditioners and space heaters, and electrical loads of specialized process equipment. Finally, the maintenance staff must be interviewed to find the equipment and performance problems.

The auditor should write down these people's names, job functions and telephone numbers, since it is frequently necessary to get additional information after the initial audit visit.

Walk-through Tour

A walk-through tour of the facility or plant tour should be conducted by the facility/plant manager, and should be arranged so the auditor or audit team can see the major operational and equipment features of the facility. The main purpose of the walk-through tour is to obtain general information. More specific information should be obtained from the maintenance and operational people after the tour.

Getting Detailed Data

Following the facility or plant tour, the auditor or audit team should acquire the detailed data on facility equipment and operation that will lead to identifying the significant Energy Conservation Opportunities (ECOs) that may be appropriate for this facility. This includes data on lighting, HVAC equipment, motors, water heating, and specialized equipment such as refrigerators, ovens, mixers, boilers, heaters, etc. This data is most easily recorded on individualized data sheets that have been prepared in advance.

What to Look for

• Lighting: Making a detailed inventory of all lighting is important. Data should be recorded on numbers of each type of light fixtures and lamps, wattages of lamps, and hours of operation of groups of lights. A lighting inventory data sheet should be used to record this data. Using a lightmeter, the auditor should also record light intensity readings for each area. Taking notes on types of tasks performed in each area will help the auditor select alternative lighting technologies that might be more energy efficient. Other items to note are the areas that may be infrequently used and may be candidates for occupancy sensor controls of lighting, or areas where daylighting may be feasible.

• HVAC Equipment: All heating, air conditioning and ventilating equipment should be inventoried. Prepared data sheets can be used to record type, size, model numbers, age, electrical specifications or fuel use specifications, and estimated hours of operation. The equipment should be inspected to determine the condition of the evaporator and condenser coils, the air filters, and the insulation on the refrigerant lines. Air velocity measurement may also be made and recorded to assess operating efficiencies or to discover conditioned air leaks. This data will allow later analysis to examine alternative equipment and operations that would reduce energy costs for heating, ventilating, and air conditioning.

• Electric Motors: An inventory of all electric motors over 1 horsepower should also be taken. Prepared data sheets can be used to record motor size, use, age, model number, estimated hours of operation, other electrical characteristics, and possibly the operating power factor. Measurement of voltages, currents, and power factors may be appropriate for some motors. Notes should be taken on the use of motors, particularly recording those that are infrequently used and might be candidates for peak load control or shifting use to off-peak times. All motors over 1 hp and with times of use of 2000 hours per year or greater, are likely candidates for replacement by high efficiency motors—at least when they fail and must be replaced.

Water Heaters: All water heaters should be examined, and data recorded on their type, size, age, model number, electrical characteristics or fuel use. What the hot water is used for, how much is used, and what time it is used should all be noted. Temperature of the hot water should be measured.

Waste Heat Sources: Most facilities have many sources of waste heat, providing possible opportunities for waste heat recovery to be used as the substantial or total source of needed hot water. Waste heat sources are air conditioners, air compressors, heaters and boilers, process cooling systems, ovens, furnaces, cookers, and many others. Temperature measurements for these waste heat sources are necessary to analyze them for replacing the operation of the existing water heaters.

Peak Equipment Loads: The auditor should particularly look for any piece of electrically powered equipment that is used infrequently or whose use could be controlled and shifted to off-peak times. Examples of infrequently used equipment include trash compactors, fire sprinkler system pumps (testing), certain types of welders, drying ovens, or any type of back-up machine. Some production machines might be able to be scheduled for off-peak. Water heating could be done off-peak if a storage system is available, and off-peak thermal storage can be accomplished for on-peak heating or cooling of buildings. Electrical measurements of voltages, currents, and wattages may be helpful. Any information which leads to a piece of equipment being used off-peak is valuable, and could result in substantial savings on electric bills. The auditor should be especially alert for those infrequent on-peak uses that might help explain anomalies on the energy demand bills.

Other Energy-Consuming Equipment: Finally, an inventory of all other equipment that consumes a substantial amount of energy should be taken. Commercial facilities may have extensive computer and copying equipment, refrigeration and cooling equipment, cooking devices, printing equipment, water heaters, etc. Industrial facilities will have many highly specialized process and production operations and machines. Data on types, sizes, capacities, fuel use, electrical characteristics, age, and operating hours should be recorded for all of this equipment.

Preliminary Identification of ECOs

As the audit is being conducted, the auditor should take notes on potential ECOs that are evident. Identifying ECOs requires a good knowledge of the available energy efficiency technologies that can accomplish the same job with less energy and less cost. For example, overlighting indicates a potential lamp removal or lamp change ECO, and inefficient lamps indicates a potential lamp technology change. Motors with high use times are potential ECOs for high efficiency replacements. Notes on waste heat sources should indicate what other heating sources they might replace, and how far away they are from the end use point. Identifying any potential ECOs during the walk-through will make it easier later on to analyze the data and to determine the final ECO recommendations.

3.3.5 Post-Audit Analysis

Following the audit visit to the facility, the data collected should be examined, organized and reviewed for completeness. Any missing data items should be obtained from the facility personnel or from a re-visit to the facility. The preliminary ECOs identified during the audit visit should now be reviewed, and the actual analysis of the equipment or operational change should be conducted. This involves determining the costs and the benefits of the potential ECO, and making a judgment on the cost-effectiveness of that potential ECO.

Cost-effectiveness involves a judgment decision that is viewed differently by different people and different companies. Often, Simple Payback Period (SPP) is used to measure cost-effectiveness, and most facilities want a SPP of two years or less. The SPP for an ECO is found by taking the initial cost and dividing it by the annual savings. This results in finding a period of time for the savings to repay the initial investment, without using the time value of money. One other common measure of cost-effectiveness is the discounted benefit-cost ratio. In this method, the annual savings are discounted when they occur in future years, and are added together to find the present value of the annual savings over a specified period of time.

The benefit-cost ratio is then calculated by dividing the present value of the savings by the initial cost. A ratio greater than one means that the investment will more than repay itself, even when the discounted future savings are taken into account.

Several ECO examples are given here in order to illustrate the relationship between the audit information obtained and the technology and operational changes recommended to save on energy bills.

Lighting ECO

First, an ECO technology is selected—such as replacing an existing 400 watt mercury vapor lamp with a 325 watt multi-vapor lamp when it burns out. The cost of the replacement lamp must be determined. Product catalogs can be used to get typical prices for the new lamp—about $10 more than the 400 watt mercury vapor lamp. The new lamp is a direct screw-in replacement, and no change is needed in the fixture or ballast. Labor cost is assumed to be the same to install either lamp. The benefits—or cost savings—must be calculated next. The power savings is 400-325 = 75 watts. If the lamp operates for 4000 hours per year and electric energy costs $0.075/kWh, then the savings is (.075 kW)(4000 hr/year)($0.075/kWh) = $22.50/year. This gives a SPP = $10/$22.50/yr =.4 years, or about 5 months. This would be considered an extremely cost-effective ECO. (For illustration purposes, ballast wattage has been ignored.)

Motor ECO

A ventilating fan at a fiberglass boat manufacturing company has a standard efficiency 5 hp motor that runs at full load two shifts a day, or 4160 hours per year. When this motor wears out, the company will have an ECO of using a high efficiency motor. A high efficiency 5 hp motor costs around $80 more to purchase than the standard efficiency motor. The standard motor is 83% efficient and the high efficiency model is 88.5% efficient. The cost savings is found by calculating (5 hp)(4160 hr/yr)(.746 kW/hp)[(1/.83) -( 1/.885)]($.075/kWh) = (1162 kWh)*($0.075) = $87.15/ year. The SPP = $80/$87.15/yr =.9 years, or about 11 months. This is also a very attractive ECO when evaluated by this economic measure.

The discounted benefit-cost ratio can be found once a motor life is determined, and a discount rate is selected. Companies generally have a corporate standard for the discount rate used in determining their measures used to make investment decisions. For a 10 year assumed life, and a 10% discount rate, the present worth factor is found as 6.144 (see Chapter 4, Ap pendix 4A). The benefit-cost ratio is found as B/C = ($87.15)(6.144)/$80 = 6.7. This is an extremely attractive benefit-cost ratio.

Peak Load Control ECO

A metals fabrication plant has a large shot-blast cleaner that is used to remove the rust from heavy steel blocks before they are machined and welded. The cleaner shoots out a stream of small metal balls—like shotgun pellets—to clean the metal blocks. A 150 hp motor provides the primary motive force for this cleaner. If turned on during the first shift, this machine requires a total electrical load of about 180 kW which adds directly to the peak load billed by the electric utility. At $7.02/kW/month, this costs (180 kW)*($7.02/ kW/month) = $1263.60/month. Discussions with line operating people resulted in the information that the need for the metal blocks was known well in advance, and that the cleaning could easily be done on the evening shift before the blocks were needed. Based on this information, the recommended ECO is to restrict the shot-blast cleaner use to the evening shift, saving the company $15,163.20 per year. Since there is no cost to implement this ECO, the SPP = O; that is, the payback is immediate.

3.3.6 The Energy Audit Report

The next step in the energy audit process is to prepare a report which details the final results and recommendations. The length and detail of this report will vary depending on the type of facility audited. A residential audit may result in a computer printout from the utility. An industrial audit is more likely to have a detailed explanation of the ECOs and benefit-cost analyses. The following discussion covers the more detailed audit reports.

The report should begin with an executive summary that provides the owners/managers of the audited facility with a brief synopsis of the total savings available and the highlights of each ECO. The report should then describe the facility that has been audited, and provide information on the operation of the facility that relates to its energy costs. The energy bills should be presented, with tables and plots showing the costs and consumption. Following the energy cost analysis, the recommended ECOs should be presented, along with the calculations for the costs and benefits, and the cost-effectiveness criterion.

Regardless of the audience for the audit report, it should be written in a clear, concise and easy-to understand format and style. The executive summary should be tailored to non-technical personnel, and technical jargon should be minimized. A client who understands the report is more likely to implement the recommended ECOs. An outline for a complete energy audit report is shown below.

Energy Audit Report Format

Executive Summary

A brief summary of the recommendations and cost savings Table of Contents Introduction

Purpose of the energy audit

Need for a continuing energy cost control program Facility Description

Product or service, and materials flow

Size, construction, facility layout, and hours of operation

Equipment list, with specifications Energy Bill Analysis

Utility rate structures

Tables and graphs of energy consumptions and costs

Discussion of energy costs and energy bills Energy Conservation Opportunities Listing of potential ECOs Cost and savings analysis Economic evaluation Action Plan

Recommended ECOs and an implementation schedule

Designation of an energy monitor and ongoing program Conclusion

Additional comments not otherwise covered

3.3.7 The Energy Action Plan

The last step in the energy audit process is to recommend an action plan for the facility. Some companies will have an energy audit conducted by their electric utility or by an independent consulting firm, and will then make changes to reduce their energy bills. They may not spend any further effort in the energy cost control area until several years in the future when another energy audit is conducted. In contrast to this is the company which establishes a permanent energy cost control program, and assigns one person—or a team of people—to continually monitor and improve the energy efficiency and energy productivity of the company. Similar to a Total Quality Management program where a company seeks to continually improve the quality of its products, services and operation, an energy cost control program seeks continual improvement in the amount of product produced for a given expenditure for energy.

The energy action plan lists the ECOs which should be implemented first, and suggests an overall implementation schedule. Often, one or more of the recommended ECOs provides an immediate or very short payback period, so savings from that ECO—or those ECOs can be used to generate capital to pay for implementing the other ECOs. In addition, the action plan also suggests that a company designate one person as the energy monitor for the facility. This person can look at the monthly energy bills and see whether any unusual costs are occurring, and can verify that the energy savings from ECOs is really being seen. Finally, this person can continue to look for other ways the company can save on energy costs, and can be seen as evidence that the company is interested in a future program of energy cost control.

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