In today's cost-competitive, market-driven economy, everyone is seeking technologies or methods to reduce energy expenses and environmental impact. Because nearly all buildings have lights, lighting retrofits are very common and generally offer an attractive return on investment. Electricity used to operate lighting systems represents a significant portion of total electricity consumed in the United States. Lighting systems consume approximately 20% of the electricity generated in the United States.1

An attractive feature of lighting retrofits is they typically provide savings for both kW and kWh charges. Thus, the potential for dollar savings is increased. Many lighting retrofits can also improve the visual environment and worker productivity. Conversely, if a lighting retrofit reduces lighting quality, worker productivity may drop and the energy savings could be overshadowed by reduced profits. This was the case with the lighting retrofits of the 1970s, when employees were left "in the dark" due to massive de-lamping initiatives. However, due to substantial advances in technologies, today's lighting retrofits can reduce energy expenses while improving lighting quality and worker productivity.

This chapter will provide the energy manager with a good understanding of lighting fundamentals, so that he/she can oversee successful lighting upgrades. The Example Section, (near the end of this chapter) contains analyses of a few common lighting retrofits. The Schematics Section contains illustrations of many lamps, ballasts and lighting systems.

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