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flNu and Ra based on vertical height L. ^Nu and Ra based on diameter D.

for the heat transport from body 1 to body 2. Figures I.11 to I.14 show the shape factors for some commonly encountered cases. Note that the shape factor is a function of geometry only.

Gaseous radiation that occurs in luminous combustion zones is difficult to treat theoretically. It is too complex to be treated here and the interested reader is referred to Siegel and Howell7 for a detailed discussion.

In words, this is simply a balance between mass entering and leaving a control volume and the rate of mass storage. The p(u^n) terms are integrated over the control surface, whereas the p dV term is dependent upon an integration over the control volume.

For a steady flow in a constant-area duct, the continuity equation simplifies to m = p fAcu = constant

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